Guide A comprehensive guide to essential nutrients

Prettyboy

Prettyboy

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I. Introduction
This guide is about all the essential nutrients and how to get all of them from animal food sources, as part of a carnivore diet or otherwise.

Overview:
Macro

Micro

II. Protein
Proteins are large biomolecules and macromolecules that comprise one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells and organisms, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific 3D structure that determines its activity. Protein as a macronutrient has roughly the same energy content as carbohydrates, namely ~4 kcal (17 kJ) / g.

The required amount of protein is the topic of an age old debate. For non active persons the RDA recommends around 1 gram for each bodyweight kilogram of protein per day, but that's jackshit. You'll gona look like a muscle less skinnyfat faggot with that amount. There are another scientific papers that conclude there's no point consuming more than 1.5 g / bwkg as the excess is not absorbed. Personally from half a decade of personal experiments, my anecdotal opinion is in line with the broader carnivore community. I recommend 2-3 g of protein a day for each lean (fatless) bodyweight kilogram. The higher your protein consumption, the leaner you can be sustainably without muscle wastage.​

Amino acids
The most important aspect and defining characteristic of protein from a nutritional standpoint is its amino acid composition. Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. During human digestion, proteins are broken down in the stomach to smaller polypeptide chains via hydrochloric acid and protease actions. This is crucial for the absorption of the essential amino acids that cannot be biosynthesized by the body. There are 21 amino acids common to all life forms, of which nine humans cannot synthetize thus need to be consumed with food, six other amino acids are conditionnaly essential, meaning their synthesis can be limited under certain pathophysiological conditions and last but not least another six amino acids are non-essential, meaning the human body is able to synthetize them.
Essential amino acids (EAA)
There are nine essential amino acids which humans must obtain from their diet in order to prevent protein–energy malnutrition and resulting death. They are:
  • Phenylalanine
  • Valine
  • Threonine
  • Tryptophan
  • Methionine
  • Leucine
  • Isoleucine
  • Lysine
  • Histidine
Conditionally essential amino acids
Six other amino acids are considered conditionally essential in the human diet, meaning their synthesis can be limited under special pathophysiological conditions. They are:
  • Arginine
  • Cysteine
  • Glutamine
  • Glycine
  • Proline
  • Tyrosine
Non-essential amino acids
Six amino acids are non-essential (dispensable) in humans, meaning they can be synthesized in sufficient quantities in the body. They are:
  • Alanine
  • Aspartic acid
  • Asparagine
  • Glutamic acid
  • Serine
  • Selenocysteine
  • Pyrrolysine

Animal vs plant based protein
Biological value (BV)
Biological value (BV) is a measure of the proportion of absorbed protein from a food which becomes incorporated into the proteins of the organism's body. It captures how readily the digested protein can be used in protein synthesis in the cells of the organism. Proteins are the major source of nitrogen in food. BV assumes protein is the only source of nitrogen and measures the amount of nitrogen ingested in relation to the amount which is subsequently excreted. The remainder must have been incorporated into the proteins of the organisms body. A ratio of nitrogen incorporated into the body over nitrogen absorbed gives a measure of protein "usability" – the BV.

Some examples: (100 would mean 100% of the nitrogen is incorporated)
Food
Biological value
Whey protein
96​
Whole soy bean
96​
Human milk
95​
Chicken egg
94​
Beef
92​
Cow milk
90​
Cheese
84​
Rice
83​
Fish
76​
Bean
65​
Whole wheat
64​
White flour
41​


Complete vs non-complete protein sources
As you can see in the table above, animal protein sources tend to have higher biological values, than plant ones, this is due to animal based food being a complete protein source (they contain the nine essential amino acids in ideal ratios) and plants, aside from soy and few others being incomplete protein sources (they don't contain the nine essential amino acids in ideal ratios).

Some animal (complete) protein sources
grams of protein per 100g
Cheeses
15-40​
Muscle meat, including fish
15-25​
Quark, cottage cheese
10-15​
Eggs
13​
Milk
3​

Complementary protein
Aside from soy, buckwheat and hempseeds, plants lack one or more essential amino acids.
  • In legumes' and vegetables case is usually methionine
  • Grains lack lysine and threonine
  • Nuts and seeds lack lysine
  • Corn lacks tryptophan and lysine.
To combat this, humanity have been combining certain plants with others that complement each other's amino acids profile. Like grains with legumes. Just think of food like Mexican burritos, Levantine tahini with hummus and pita, etc.
The inherent problems of plant protein sources
Despite complementing, plants are still should be a last resort (in case of famine) to intake protein, due to:

Antinutrients
Not a single living organism wants to be destroyed. Plants might not fight back with physical force unlike animals due to their stationary nature but they do harm those who eat them, with myriads of purpose produced chemicals called antinutrients. I do plan to make a comprehensive thread about plants' antinutrients, but for here's @Ada Mustang 's guide on them from BOTB:​
https://looksmax.org/threads/anti-nutrients-megathread-plants-are-dangerous.384992/

Carbohydrate content
Even if we disregard the abundance of harmful antinutrients found in plant protein sources, there's still one more critical flaw that cannot be ignored. Plants rich in protein more often than not are also filled to the brim with carbohydrates, at least that is certainly the case for legumes and grains (e.g. for every 10g of protein from wheat, you consume 80g of carbs). More in the IV. Carbohydrates section about why excessive carbohydrates, especially starches are horrible for you.
You cannot effecitvely lean down eating plant protein sources, since their high carbohydrate content keeps your blood sugar levels high. Another way to look at it is protein per calorie. You can consume as much protein as possible with the least amount of calories from animal sources, since e.g. lean meat is nothing but protein and water.
III. Lipids
Fats should be your main energy source. Either from your bodyfat or dietary sources, they provide more than double the amount of energy than carbs and proteins at 9.3 kcal (39 kJ) / g. My recommendation is to consume 2-3x the amount of your bodyweight in grams of fat, depending on your activity level, in combination with 2-3x protein and 30-50 grams of simple carbohydrates.​

Ketosis
Ketosis is a metabolic state characterized by elevated levels of ketone bodies in the blood or urine. Physiological ketosis is a normal response to low glucose availability, such as low-carbohydrate diets or fasting, that provides an additional energy source for the brain in the form of ketones. In physiological ketosis, ketones in the blood are elevated above baseline levels, but the body's acid–base homeostasis is maintained.

There may be side effects when changing over from glucose metabolism to fat metabolism. These may include headache, fatigue, dizziness, insomnia, difficulty in exercise tolerance, constipation, and nausea, especially in the first days and weeks after starting a ketogenic diet. Breath may develop a sweet, fruity flavor via production of acetone that is exhaled because of its high volatility. This is known as the adaptation period and it may last for weeks, depending on yoour level of carbohydrate intake beforehand.​

I don't recommend being in ketosis all the time. Preferably before and after exercise you should consume some simple carbs, to elevate your blood sugar level and stimulate an insulin response.

Saturated fatty acids
Although saturated fat has been demonized for decades by big pharma, it's an essential part of the diet. It should be your main energy source. It is essential for healthy testosterone levels. Feel free to consume it in any amounts, according to your needs based on your activity level.

Most animal fat is saturated. If the food is solid in room temperature, it is mostly made up of saturated fat.
Fat

Fat dairy

Fat meat

You should always cook your meal with either butter or animal fat (pork, goose, beef lard etc.). Never use vegetable oils for cooking, they are poison

Cholesterol
Another one that has been demonized for decades so that statine producing pharma companies and margarine producers with their lies can make profit from your harm.

Cholesterol is absolutely essential for androgen hormone production
Testosterone synthesis Cholesterol is the precursor to all steroid hormones After

and although our body can synthetize some amount, it's good to consume as much as you can. It can only be found in animal based foods.

The best sources of cholesterol are eggs, red meat, organs, seafood and dairy, especially cheese. Always eat the opposite (((they))) tell you. Make no mistake, the foods they demonize are the most essential ones to be healthy and strong both in the body and mind.​

Monounsaturated fatty acids
Chemically speaking, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are fat molecules with one unsaturated double carbon bond. These fats are usually liquid when at room temperature and turn solid when chilled. They are found in many foods, also in meats among with other fats, not much more to say, you eat them either way.​

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)
Omega-3
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called Omega-3 oils, ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) characterized by the presence of a double bond, three atoms away from the terminal methyl group in their chemical structure. They are widely distributed in nature, being important constituents of animal lipid metabolism, and they play an important role in the human diet and in human physiology. The three types of omega−3 fatty acids involved in human physiology are α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

ALA can be found in plants, while DHA and EPA are found in algae and fish. Marine algae and phytoplankton are primary sources of omega−3 fatty acids. DHA and EPA accumulate in fish that eat these algae.

Mammals are unable to synthesize the essential omega−3 fatty acid ALA and can only obtain it through diet. However, they can use ALA, when available, to form EPA and DHA, by creating additional double bonds along its carbon chain (desaturation) and extending it (elongation). Namely, ALA (18 carbons and 3 double bonds) is used to make EPA (20 carbons and 5 double bonds), which is then used to make DHA (22 carbons and 6 double bonds). The ability to make the longer-chain omega−3 fatty acids from ALA may be impaired in aging. In foods exposed to air, unsaturated fatty acids are vulnerable to oxidation and rancidity.

The adequate daily intake level of ALA is set at 1.6 grams for adult men, but more might be better.

Animal food source
grams of Omega-3 per 100 g
Icelandic mackerel
5-6​
Herring
1.5-2​
Sardines
1-2​
Salmon
1-2​
Tuna
0.5-1​
Cod
0.15-0.25​
Omega-6
Despite some people demonizing them, omega-6 fatty acids are essential nutrients that the body cannot otherwise get, but they do cause inflamation if consumed in excess amounts.

Omega-6 is widely found in the meat of land animals. The meat of ruminants like beef contains less (especially if it's grass fed isntead of grain), while others like pork and chicken more of omega-6.

The omega 3:6 ratio
Despite what Ray Peaters claim, PUFAs aren't the ones that will kill you. They are essential nutrients, but two rules must be followed:

1.) Don't consume too much omega-6
2.) Keep the ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 consumed between 1:2 and 1:4.

The second rule is crucial and that's where the supposed danger of PUFAs come from. Excess omega-6 leads to inflammation and the average Westerner's omega-3/6 ratio stands at 1:15 or even higher (for some Americans it might even be 1:40). Eat enough omega-3 to compensate for the 6 and you will be fine.

III. Carbohydrates
Despite 99% of the population running on glucose, carbohydrates are in fact a non-essential macronutrient. In absence of them the body switches from glucolysis to ketosis, in another words using body & dietary fat for energy to keep running. The brain do needs glucose to function but glucose can be still made by the body without dietary carb intake through the demand-driven metabolic pathway of gluconeogenesis, which can convert proteins and lipids into glucose.​
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gluconeogenesis

With that said, I certainly don't recommend totally abstaining from carbohydrates as being in a constant state of ketosis is stressful for the body and ultimately catabolic over the long term (due to no blood sugar levels spiking - insulin is an anabolic hormone but it's good to use it moderation). Again, this is solely my anecdotal observation from multiple years of trial and error. I recommend a daily carbohydrate intake of around 30-50 grams (could be less but not more). This amount has proven to be the sweet spot for me. With it I am in anabolic state yet the amount is far too little to rollercoaster ride my blood sugar level, this way I can stay around at 10% body fat year around without limiting my calories. This is something guys running off of glucolysis only could dream of.

Hoping to lean down while being in glucolysis by restricting caloric intake and / or fasting is retarded. The body always responds to restricting with accumulation as it think you are amidst a famine. Burning fat is not it's trivial choice, it will burn anything from muscle mass to collagen. Carbohydrates hinder fat loss since the body cannot burn fat while constantly being in a state of high blood sugar levels. By abstaining from carbs, your body will naturally turn to your bodyfat deposits to energy, preserving your hard gained muscles in the process.

The 30-50 grams of daily carbs should all be simple carbs (sugars) and should come from dairy in the form of lactose (milk sugar). 2-3 cups of whole milk should do the trick.

Never ever consume starches, they are horrible nutrients that will only bloat you.
Fiber
Although the mainstream fitness advice is to consume enough both water soluble and non soluble fiber to avoid constipation, this couldn't be further from the truth. It does slow down the digestion of foods, which comes handy if you eat carb heavy dishes, since the elongated absorption also means a more gentler glycemic load.

Their usefullness ends here, if you otherwise don't consume carbs, there's no point of intaking ANY fiber as fiber is ultimately undigestable plant matter that rots in your intestines.

I didn't consume fiber aside from a few times in the last 3-4 years and I'm just fine. No constipation and I barely shit because my body absorbs all of the animal food I eat, unlike plant matter.

IV. Vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins are similar to oil and do not dissolve in water. They are most abundant in high fat foods and are much better absorbed into your bloodstream when you eat them with fat. The fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E, and K, are stored in the body for long periods of time and generally pose a greater risk for toxicity than water-soluble vitamins when consumed in excess.
Vitamin A
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin and an essential nutrient for humans.

Vitamin A occurs as two principal forms in foods:
a) as retinol, found in animal-sourced foods
b) as carotenoids (like beta carotene, lycopene etc.), in plant based foods

Deficiencies of vitamin A is relatively common worldwide and is linked to bad eyesight and more importantly from a looksmaxxing perspective, harmful effect to skin (increased susceptibility to skin infection and inflammation). In fact according to the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD), retinol (retinoid), a topical form of vitamin A, can help treat and prevent inflammatory acne lesions. The organization recommends using topical retinoids to treat several types of acne. Retinol may help improve acne by: decreasing inflammation.​

You can use this useful effect of it with tretinoin but as my personal anecdotal observations suggest, simply eating liver regularly also helps (as it has by far the most retinol in it out of any food).

On the other side, hypervitaminosis A, the oversdosing of retinol can do occur, since it's a fat-soluble vitamin we are talking about. You should take into account liver's high retinol content and consume it responsibly.

Carotenosis, more commonly known as the yellowish-warm discoloration of the skin due to the consumption of high amounts of carotenoids (beta carotene & lycopene) on the other hand is harmless. Consumption of greater than 30 mg/day for a prolonged period has been confirmed as leading to carotenemia. Carotenodermia is reversible upon cessation of excessive intake. You can read more on carotenoids in my skincare thread:​
https://looksmax.org/threads/guide-on-achieving-model-tier-skin.430153/

The reccomended daily amount of vitamin A is around 900μg RAE (retinol activity equivalent), with the tolerable upper limit being 3 000μg RAE / day. IU = International unit. 1 IU ~= 0.3μg of retinol

Animal food source
IU of retinol per 100g
Duck liver
40 000 (1350% of RDA)​
Turkey liver
27 000​
Pork liver
21 650​
Beef liver
16 900​
Chicken liver
11 000​

The best sources of beta carotene aside from supplements:
Plant food source
mg of ß-carotene per 100g
Sweet potato
9.4​
Carrots
9.2​
Pumpkin
6.9​

And the best sources of lycopene aside from supplements:
Plant food source
mg of lycopene per 100g
Sun-dried tomatoes
46​
Ketchup
10-18​
Tomato sauce
16​
Tomato paste
7.5​
Raw tomatoes
2.6​
https://looksmax.org/threads/ketchup-is-a-very-good-source-of-lycopene.484342/
Vitamin D
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and many other biological effects. In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). The former is only found in food derived from animals.

The major natural source of the vitamin is synthesis of cholecalciferol in the lower layers of epidermis of the skin through a chemical reaction that is dependent on sun exposure (specifically UVB radiation). Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol can be ingested from the diet and supplements. Only a few foods, such as the flesh of fatty fish, naturally contain significant amounts of vitamin D.

Vitamin D from the diet, or from skin synthesis, is biologically inactive. It is activated by two protein enzyme hydroxylation steps, the first in the liver and the second in the kidneys. As vitamin D can be synthesized in adequate amounts by most mammals if exposed to sufficient sunlight. The ability to synthetize vitamin D using sunlight is greatly hindered by melanin in the skin, which means the darker your skin is, the more dietary cholecalciferol you need.

An estimated one billion people worldwide are either vitamin D insufficient or deficient. Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in the European population. A diet with insufficient vitamin D in conjunction with inadequate sun exposure causes vitamin D deficiency, which makes you depressed, worsens calciumabsorption and testosterone production.

The recommended daily amount is around 10-15μg (400-600 IU).

The best source of vitamin D3 is by far fatty sea fish.
Animal food source
μg of vitamin D3 per 100g
Mackerel
16 (300% of RDA)​
Salmon
14​
Tuna
5.7​
Sardines
5​
Herring
4​
Eggs
1.5​

Cod liver and it's oil are ridiculously good sources of it. Just a table spoon of the latter contains more than twice of RDA.
Vitamin E
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that protects tissues while fat is burned for energy. Severe deficiency is rare, but low intakes of vitamin E have been linked to high oxidative stress and tissue damage. Vitamin E is unique in that it is fat soluble and literally weaves itself into the fatty outer layer of the cell (the cell membrane) to stand guard and neutralize damaging compounds.

The benefits of vitamin E extend beyond its antioxidant capabilities. It also disrupts platelet aggregation, meaning it has a slightly blood thinning effect. In this capacity it may have a positive impact on cardiovascular health – allowing blood to flow freely through blood vessels. This same effect is observed in other heart healthy nutrients like omega 3 fatty acids.​

The recommended daily intake of vitamin E is 15mg. Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin. So in nature, the higher concentrations will be in foods with fat, the best source being fatty fish.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin E per 100g
Fish roe
7​
Abalone
4​
Trout
2.8​
Sardines
2​
Mackerel
1.5​
Salmon
1.1​
Eggs
1​
Muscle meat in general
0.3​

The Daily Value (DV) is a reference amount set for adults to consume of a particular nutrient each day. The DV for vitamin E is set at 15 mg of alpha-tocopherol, the only form of vitamin E maintained in our blood plasma (*). Although this is the working number set for vitamin E in the US, the FNB acknowledges that more research is needed to accurately characterize the amount of vitamin E required for optimal human health.

Now, if you do a simple google search for food sources of vitamin E, you’ll come across many vegetable oils listed. But what you’ll want to keep in mind is that vegetable oils are typically high in inflammatory omega 6 fats and they are typically processed in a way that produces free radicals (highly manufactured, high heat and chemical laden processes). So how much sense does it make to get your anti-inflammatory and antioxidant nutrients if they come bathed in free radicals.Exactly, not much.​

In another words, vitamin E is another case where the requirement is likely lower if you abstain from plant food.
Vitamin K
Vitamin K refers to structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamers. The human body requires vitamin K for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.

Vitamin K1 is made by plants, and is found in highest amounts in green leafy vegetables, because it is directly involved in photosynthesis. It is active as a vitamin in animals and performs the classic functions of vitamin K, including its activity in the production of blood-clotting proteins. Animals may also convert it to vitamin K2, variant MK-4. Bacteria in the gut flora can also convert K1 (phylloquinone) into MK-4. All forms of K2 other than MK-4 can only be produced by bacteria, which use these during anaerobic respiration. Vitamin K3 (menadione), a synthetic form of vitamin K, was used to treat vitamin K deficiency, but because it interferes with the function of glutathione, it is no longer used this way in human nutrition.​

The adequate daily amount for vitamin K (US Academy of Medicine does not distuingish between vitamin K1 & K2) is set at 120μg. No sufficient data exists for tolerable upper limit.

Phylloquinone (K1) has been determined to have the bioavaibility of only 5-10% when consumed from plant based foods (thereduced bioavailability of plant-sourced vitamin K appears to be due to a tight binding of phylloquinone to the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts). K2 is superior to K1, so it's kinda redundant, but you can still get it from animal sources:​

Animal food source
μg of vitamin K1 per 100g
Egg yolk
7​
Butter
2​
Mackerel
1​
Beef chuck
0.6​

Some K2 sources:

Animal food source
μg of vitamin K2 per 100g
Cheese
300-500​
Goose liver
370​
Beef liver
106​
Milk
38​
Turkey sausage
37​
Chicken meat
36​
Bacon
35​

Water-soluble vitamins
Water-soluble vitamins aren’t long-term like fat-soluble vitamins. They don’t get stored in your body. They enter your bloodstream, and anything your body doesn’t need is eliminated through your urine. ‌Since water-soluble vitamins don’t last long in your body, they need to be replenished frequently.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Thiamine, also known as thiamin and vitamin B1, is a vitamin, an essential micronutrient, which cannot be made in the body.

The RDA for vitamin B1 is 1.2 mg for adult males.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B1 per 100g
Pork chops
0.7 (56% of RDA)​
Pork kidney
0.35​
Salmon
0.3​
Pork liver
0.3​
Mussels
0.3​
Chicken heart
0.15​
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
As a water-soluble vitamin, any riboflavin consumed in excess of nutritional requirements is not stored; it is either not absorbed or is absorbed and quickly excreted in urine, causing the urine to have a bright yellow tint. Natural sources of riboflavin include meat, fish and fowl, eggs, dairy products.

The RDA for vitamin B2 for adult males is 1.3mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B2 per 100g
Beef liver
3.4 (260% of RDA)​
Chicken liver
2.3​
Whey protein powder
2​
Eggs
0.4​
Cheese
0.4​
Turkey meat
0.2-0.4​
Beef meat
0.2​
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient. It can be manufactured by plants and animals from the amino acid tryptophan. Niacin is obtained in the diet from a variety of whole and processed foods, with highest contents in fortified packaged foods, meat, poultry, red fish such as tuna and salmon.​

The daily adequate intake level of vitamin B3 for adult males is 1.6mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B3 per 100g
Tuna
5-22​
Bacon
10​
Salmon
10​
Turkey
7-12​
Chicken
7-12​
Beef
4-8​
Pork
4-8​
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 is a water-soluble B vitamin and therefore an essential nutrient. All animals require pantothenic acid in order to synthesize coenzyme A (CoA) – essential for fatty acid metabolism – as well as to, in general, synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.

The adequate daily intake level for vitamin B5 is 5mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B5 per 100g
Beef liver7.2
Pork liver6.65
Chicken liver6.2
Pork heart2.5
Salmon1.1
Mackerel0.85
Beef meat0.65
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
The term refers to a group of six chemically similar compounds, i.e., "vitamers", which can be interconverted in biological systems. Its active form, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, serves as a coenzyme in more than 140 enzyme reactions in amino acid, glucose, and lipid metabolism.

The daily needed amount of vitamin B6 is around 1.7mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B6 per 100g
Whey protein concentrate
1.2​
Beef liver
1​
Tuna
1​
Beef meat
1​
Salmon
1​
Chicken meat
0.7​
Pork meat
0.6​
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
Biotin, also called vitamin B7, is one of the B vitamins. It is involved in a wide range of metabolic processes, both in humans and in other organisms, primarily related to the utilization of fats, carbohydrates, and amino acids.

Adequate daily intake for vitamin B7 is 30μg.

Animal food source
μg of vitamin B7 per 100g
Chicken liver
187​
Beef liver
42​
Eggs
21​
Salmon
6​
Pork chop
4.5​
Cheese
1.4​
Vitamin B9 (Folic acid)
Folate, also known as vitamin B9 and folacin, is one of the B vitamins. Manufactured folic acid, which is converted into folate by the body, is used as a dietary supplement and in food fortification as it is more stable during processing and storage. Folate is required for the body to make DNA and RNA and metabolise amino acids necessary for cell division. As humans cannot make folate, it is required in the diet, making it an essential nutrient. It occurs naturally in many foods.

The recommended adult daily intake of folate is 400 micrograms.
Animal food source
μg of folate per 100g
Chicken liver
578​
Calf liver
330​
Cheese
20-60​
Eggs
45​
Salmon
35​
Chicken meat
12​
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin involved in metabolism. It is one of eight B vitamins. It is required by animals, which use it as a cofactor in DNA synthesis, in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. It is important in the normal functioning of the nervous system via its role in the synthesis of myelin, and in the circulatory system in the maturation of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Plants do not need cobalamin and carry out the reactions with enzymes that are not dependent on it.

Vitamin B12 is the most chemically complex of all vitamins, and for humans, the only vitamin that must be sourced from animal-derived foods or supplements. Only some archaea and bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12. Most people in developed countries get enough B12 from the consumption of meat or foods with animal sources, it's only vegans who are sabotaging themselves as usual.

The required daily amount of vitamin B12 is around 2.5μg for adults.

Animals store vitamin B12 from their diets in their livers and muscles and some pass the vitamin into their eggs and milk. Meat, liver, eggs and milk are therefore sources of the vitamin for other animals, including humans. For humans, the bioavailability from eggs is less than 9%, compared to 40% to 60% from fish, fowl and meat. Insects are a source of B12 for animals (including other insects and humans). Animal-derived food sources with a high concentration of vitamin B12 include liver and other organ meats from lamb, veal, beef, and turkey; shellfish and crab meat.​
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue, the formation of collagen, and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters. It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function. It also functions as an antioxidant. Most animals are able to synthesize their own vitamin C. However, apes (including humans) and monkeys (but not all primates), most bats, some rodents, and certain other animals must acquire it from dietary sources.
Vitamin C needs a special mention if we are talking about the carnivore diet. The number 1 thing someone will say if you mention you only eat animal based food is but where do you get vitamin C from? You will get scurvy! Everyone knows the famous anecdote about British sailors getting scurvy on their long sea journeys and how they supposedly solved it by bringing citrus fruit with them. But the anecdote completely misses the real underlying problem, namely that ascorbic acid and glucose (sugar) are so similar, that they in fact compete for absorption in the human body:

https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/130/1/63/4686080

While many animals can use glucose to synthesize Vitamin C, humans and other primates such as apes and monkeys lost this capacity during the evolution process. Lack of L-gluconolactone oxidase enzyme in our bodies hinders us from synthesizing Vitamin C out of glucose.

But our bodies have devised ways to cope with this by creating a system that takes out the oxidized form of Vitamin C and transporting it in antioxidant form. Unlike animals that make their own Vitamin C, humans need low amounts of Vitamin C.

Researchers also found that glucose and Vitamin C have nearly identical molecular structure and use the same pathways for absorption into the bloodstream. As such, they compete with each other for uptake and glucose wins preferentially. So basically, when you consume a high-sugar, high carb meal, your body absorbs the glucose over Vitamin C.

The real reason why British sailors got scurvy is not the lack of vitamin C they consumed, it's the unmentioned fact that they ate a shitload of carb loaded biscuits, which in turn completely reduced their possible vitamin C absorption ability, skyrocketing the need for vitamin C, which they couldn't get until they decided to bring vitamin C rich fruits with them.

Eating fruits to get vitamin C is very retarded if you think about it. They might have high ascorbic acid content, but their high sugar content completely hinders it's absorption. That’s why drinking orange juice to increase Vitamin C is counterintuitive. It may contain a lot of Vitamin C, but you don’t get any of it because of the high sugar content.

TL;DR The more carbohydrates (glucose) you consume, the higher your vitamin C need is. If you follow a lowcarb diet, your ascorbic acid needs drops significantly, close to zero on a carnivore diet. No, you won't get scurvy if you only eat animal products.
Another important factor to note is that vitamin C's main function in the body at the end of the day is collagen production, which again, is already maxed out on a carnivore diet, since meat has hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine abundantly, the two building blocks of collagen. If you are looking for good skin, eating meat soup with bone marrow will do hundred times more for that than consuming muh fruits :feelsuhh:

If you’re worried about the antioxidant properties of Vitamin C, don’t be. Your body produces glutathione and uric acid, which are natural antioxidants. These substances are much more potent and take over many of Vitamin C’s roles in the body.​

Meat after all does contain vitamin C but keep in mind that ascorbic acid is very heat sensitive, overcooking your meat will destroy most of it, but again, it's not a problem.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin C per 100g
Beef spleen
45​
Pork liver
25​
Clams
20​
Chicken liver
18​
Pork kidney
13.3​
Trout
3.5​
Chicken heart
3.2​
Beef liver
1.3​

V. Minerals
Quantity elements
The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and magnesium. Calcium makes up around 1kg of adult body weight, with 99% of it contained in bones and teeth. Phosphorus makes up another 1%. These minerals together with the most abundant elements (oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen) make up 99.85% of the body.
Calcium (Ca)
Calcium is important for bone health, muscle contractions and blood clotting.

The RDA is set at 1g of calcium per day but a lot of people think this is too high. This is because calcium needs vitamin D and vitamin K2 to be absorbed into the body, and most modern diets are highly lacking in both of these.

Animal food source
mg of calcium per 100g
Cheese
750 - 1 400​
Canned small fish (like sardines, spruts) that has edible little bones in it
400​
Milk
120​
Quark
80​

The best source of calcium is dairy by far. Deficiency of it is highly correlated with lactose intolerance:
Efgege
Tumblr mlhqli75uA1rasnq9o1 500


Dairy is so good in so many regards that if you happen to be lactose intolerant, I would highly suggest looking into lactose-free dairy products or getting lactase enzyme pills. With that said, dairy-free carnivore sources of calcium include small canned fish with little edible bones and you can make your own calcium powder by drying out and grinding eggshells.​
Magnesium (Mg)
Magnesium helps to maintain normal nerve function and muscle function, it supports your immune system and regulates your heartbeat. Sign of a magnesium deficiency include muscle cramps, muscle twitching, heart palpitations, fatigue, constipation. Overall it's a very important mineral for maximising physical output.

Intracellular magnesium is correlated with intracellular potassium. Increased magnesium lowers calcium and can either prevent hypercalcemia or cause hypocalcemia depending on the initial level. Both low and high protein intake conditions inhibit magnesium absorption, as does the amount of phosphate, phytate, and fat in the gut. Unabsorbed dietary magnesium is excreted in feces; absorbed magnesium is excreted in urine and sweat. The ideal ratio of calcium and magnesium is around 2:1.

Most people need around 400mg of magnesium a day, but this amount can go substantially higher if you are physically active. More is always better than not enough.​

Animal food source
mg of magnesium per 100g
Oyster
150​
Crab
110​
Mackerel
75​
Anchovies
45​
Tuna
35​
Muscle meat in general
25​
Cheese
25​
Liver
20​

As you can see seafood is by far the best source of magnesium in the animal kingdom, but they still don't contain a lot. Some amount do adds up but you should get the rest from water. Magnesium-rich water used to be the norm in nature, where our ancestors could drink water which has gone through layers of limestone.
IMG_1370_result.jpg

This is no longer a privilege for most of us, but the second best thing is drinking mineral water or by simply adding some more magnesium with supplements. It's very location dependant, but in many places tap water also contains a considerable amount of magnesium (usually near limestone mountains , who would have thought).​
Phosphorus (P)
RDA is around 700mg. The ideal calcium to phosphorus ratio is somewhere between 1:1 and 2:1.

Animal food source
mg of phosphorus per 100g
Sardines
480​
Cheese
350​
Liver
300​
Beef meat
200​
Pork meat
160​
Milk
90​

While phosphorus is naturally present in many foods, some processed foods also contain large amounts from additives. Phosphate additives are nearly 100% absorbable, and can contribute anywhere from 300 to 1,000 mg of additional phosphorus per day. Processed foods and beverages that often contain added phosphates include processed meats (beef, lamb, pork and chicken products are often marinated or injected with phosphate additives to keep the meat tender and juicy).​
Potassium (K)
Potassium is an essential nutrient that regulates fluid balance in cells and blood pressure. Symptoms of deficiency include increased blood pressure, kidney stones, constipation, muscle weakness, and irregular heartbeat.​

The daily recommended intake of potassium is at least 2,600 – 3,400 mg for an adult, though the USDA recommends 4,700 mg.

Animal food source
mg of potassium per 100g
Sardines
400​
Beef meat
375​
Salmon
370​
Chicken meat
300​
Liver
300​
Pork heart
300​
Milk
140​
Chicken eggs
140​
Cheese
140​

A cup of bone broth contains around 500mg of potassium, on top of this you can supplement more if needed with high-potassium salt subsitutes (these products replace a portion of sodium chloride found in table salt with potassium chloride).
Sodium (Na)
Sodium chloride (table salt) is the principal source of sodium. The U.S. Institute of Medicine set its tolerable upper intake level for sodium at 2.3 grams per day, but the average person consumes much more than that. Excess sodium consumption is linked with high blood pleasure in some individual and may cause bloat.

The carnivore diet and physical exercise (sweat) does increase sodium need, up to 5g / day.
Trace elements
The remaining ~18 ultratrace minerals comprise just 0.15% of the body, or about one hundred grams in total for the average person.
Chlorine (Cl)
The chloride anion is an essential nutrient for metabolism. Chlorine is needed for the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and in cellular pump functions. The main dietary source is table salt (sodium chloride).
Cobalt (Co)
In humans, consumption of cobalt-containing vitamin B12 meets all needs for cobalt.
Copper (Cu)
Copper is an essential trace element that is vital to the health of all living things. Copper is incorporated into a variety of proteins and metalloenzymes which perform essential metabolic functions; the micronutrient is necessary for the proper growth, development, and maintenance of bone, connective tissue, brain, heart, and many other body organs. Similarly to some other divalent ions, copper strongly interacts with lipid membranes and is involved in the formation of red blood cells, the absorption and utilization of iron, the metabolism of cholesterol and glucose, and the synthesis and release of life-sustaining proteins and enzymes. These enzymes in turn produce cellular energy and regulate nerve transmission, blood clotting, and oxygen transport.​

Copper absorption is hindered by an excess of iron and zinc intake.

The daily recommended amount of copper is around 1mg, with the tolerable upper intake level being at 5mg.

The best animal sources of copper are seafood and organ meat (especially liver):

Animal food source
mg of copper per 100g
Beef liver
9.8 (1 000% of RDA)​
Oysters
4.4​
Lobster
2​
Pork liver
0.7​
Crab
0.7​
Chicken liver
0.5​
Chicken heart
0.35​
Salmon
0.3​
Muscle meat in general
~ 0.08 (10% of RDA)​
Iodine (I)
Iodine is an essential element for life and, at atomic number Z = 53, is the heaviest element commonly needed by living organisms.

The recommended daily intake of iodine is around 150µg, with the tolerable upper intake level being at 1 100µg.
(The thyroid gland needs no more than 70 μg/day to synthesise the requisite daily amounts of T4 and T3. The higher recommended daily allowance levels of iodine seem necessary for optimal function of a number of body systems)

You shouldn't really worry about consuming enough iodine, since most people season their food with iodised salt (half a table spoon has the RDA of iodine). That said, seafood, eggs and dairy are good sources of it:

Animal food source
µg of iodine per 100g
Tuna
60 (40% of RDA)​
Cheese
40​
Milk
40​
Shrimp
40​
Chicken eggs
35​
Iron (Fe)
Iron is an essential bioelement for most forms of life, from bacteria to mammals. Its importance lies in its ability to mediate electron transfer. In the ferrous state (Fe2+), iron acts as an electron donor, while in the ferric state (Fe3+) it acts as an acceptor. Thus, iron plays a vital role in the catalysis of enzymatic reactions that involve electron transfer (reduction and oxidation, redox).

Heme vs non heme iron
Heme

Heme iron is clearly superior to non-heme and is only found in animal sources.
Ewfwe3


Iron deficiency is by far the most common mineral deficiency, because
a) in developing countries people can only afford shitty plant food with non-heme iron
b) in developed countries mentally ill vegans and vegetarians willfully shoot themselves in the foot :soy:

What little bad quality iron plants have is further worsened by the presence of antinutrients such as oxalates in leafy greens, which completely hinders it's absorption.

The recommended daily amount of iron is around 18 mg, more for women due to menstruation's blood loss. Heme iron is stupidly abundant in animal foods, if you are following an animal based diet it's not a matter of getting in enough, it's actually not consuming too much iron is the one you should worry about.​

Animal food source
mg of heme iron per 100g
Clam
28 (155% of RDA)​
Pork liver
18​
Lamb kidney
12​
Oyster
12​
Mussel
6.7​
Beef heart
6.4​
Muscle meat in general
2.5 (20% of RDA)​

Don't drink blood! I've seen numerous carnivore guys looking for places to buy blood from, but drinking it is a bad idea as it has too much iron in it.
Manganese (Mn)
Manganese deficiency in humans results in a number of medical problems. Relatively high dietary intake of other minerals such as iron, magnesium, and calcium may inhibit the proper intake of manganese (as they complete with it for absorption). A deficiency of manganese causes skeletal deformation in animals and inhibits the production of collagen. Humans absorb only about 1% to 5% of dietary manganese.​

The daily recommended amount of mangenese is around 2mg but it's very shady, pointed out well by this redditor:
Gerge


As with other nutrients, like vitamin C, adequate manganese intake in reality is probably much lower than what the RDA may suggest. Animal based foods may seem to be lacking in manganese but I'm telling you that's not a coincidence.

Animal food source
mg of manganese per 100g
Grass-fed bison
11.5​
Mussels
6​
Beef tripe
6​
Bass (fish)
1.15​
Trout
1.1​
Oysters
1​
Clams
0.9​
Molybdenium (Mo)
The recommended daily amount of molybdenium is at least 45μg, with the upper tolerable intake level set at 2 000μg.

Average daily intake varies between 120 and 240 μg/day, which is higher than dietary recommendations. Pork, lamb, and beef liver each have approximately 1.5 parts per million of molybdenum.


Animal food source
of RDA
100g of beef liver
230%​
Cup of yogurt
60%​
Cup of milk
50%​
Selenium (Se)
The RDA of selenium for adults is 55μg.

Animal food source
μg of selenium per 100g
Tuna
100​
Shrimp
60​
Salmon
55​
Sardines
50​
Beef
40​
Pork
40​
Sulfur (S)
Sulfur is the third most abundant mineral in your body. It is present in methionine and cysteine, which are two of the amino acids you use to make proteins. Both of these amino acids are present in your skin, hair, and nails where they help to make these tissues strong and flexible (collagen).

You obtain the sulfur your body needs from animal based proteins as well as other types of compounds such as sulfinates, allicin, and sulfides. Sulfur is also present in thiamin (vitamin B-1) and biotin (vitamin H).

No recommended daily amounts have been proposed for sulfur intake. Meat is a great source of methionine though.
VI. Water
I recommend a daily water intake level of at least 1 liter per 20 kilograms of your bodyweight. Always keep yourself hydrated by drinking many times but not a lot at each occasion. Avoid drinking from plastic bottles and don't worry about the fluoride meme as there are very few places where they put fluoride into drining water.

Mineral water can be a good supplement if you can get it in glass bottles. The ones that have high magnesium content are the most useful.
 
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AscendingHero

AscendingHero

Giga Limacel, Golden hue meeks maxxing, ascending!
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Another BANGER THREAD, i just know it is. Will read rn

FIRST!
Morgan freeman clapping gif


It'll be stickied for a week and then moved to BOTB, congratulations😍

Excellent and unique formatting style as well, appreciate the tag
 
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Prettyboy

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CuriousCell

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The blue pill is not dark blue.
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Good thread, with good format. Right on OP.
 
tyronelite

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Already know its gonna be a banger

Will read tomorrow :Comfy:
 
Reckless Turtle

Reckless Turtle

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Not a single living organism wants to be destroyed. Plants might not fight back with physical force unlike animals due to their stationary nature but they do harm those who eat them, with myriads of purpose produced chemicals called antinutrients.
Which certain animals (including humans) evolved to digest.
You cannot effecitvely lean down eating plant protein sources, since their high carbohydrate content keeps your blood sugar levels high. Another way to look at it is protein per calorie.
What do you mean by "effecitvely lean down?" Carbs are an energy source used for the exertion that will result in hypertrophy.
there's no point of intaking ANY fiber as fiber is ultimately undigestable plant matter that rots in your intestines.
How does it "rot in your intestines" if it's quickly shat out?
 
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deadlock

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I. Introduction
This guide is about all the essential nutrients and how to get all of them from animal food sources, as part of a carnivore diet or otherwise.

Overview:
View attachment 1677526
View attachment 1677527

II. Protein
Proteins are large biomolecules and macromolecules that comprise one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells and organisms, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific 3D structure that determines its activity. Protein as a macronutrient has roughly the same energy content as carbohydrates, namely ~4 kcal (17 kJ) / g.

The required amount of protein is the topic of an age old debate. For non active persons the RDA recommends around 1 gram for each bodyweight kilogram of protein per day, but that's jackshit. You'll gona look like a muscle less skinnyfat faggot with that amount. There are another scientific papers that conclude there's no point consuming more than 1.5 g / bwkg as the excess is not absorbed. Personally from half a decade of personal experiments, my anecdotal opinion is in line with the broader carnivore community. I recommend 2-3 g of protein a day for each lean (fatless) bodyweight kilogram. The higher your protein consumption, the leaner you can be sustainably without muscle wastage.​

Amino acids
The most important aspect and defining characteristic of protein from a nutritional standpoint is its amino acid composition. Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. During human digestion, proteins are broken down in the stomach to smaller polypeptide chains via hydrochloric acid and protease actions. This is crucial for the absorption of the essential amino acids that cannot be biosynthesized by the body. There are 21 amino acids common to all life forms, of which nine humans cannot synthetize thus need to be consumed with food, six other amino acids are conditionnaly essential, meaning their synthesis can be limited under certain pathophysiological conditions and last but not least another six amino acids are non-essential, meaning the human body is able to synthetize them.
Essential amino acids (EAA)
There are nine essential amino acids which humans must obtain from their diet in order to prevent protein–energy malnutrition and resulting death. They are:
  • Phenylalanine
  • Valine
  • Threonine
  • Tryptophan
  • Methionine
  • Leucine
  • Isoleucine
  • Lysine
  • Histidine
Conditionally essential amino acids
Six other amino acids are considered conditionally essential in the human diet, meaning their synthesis can be limited under special pathophysiological conditions. They are:
  • Arginine
  • Cysteine
  • Glutamine
  • Glycine
  • Proline
  • Tyrosine
Non-essential amino acids
Six amino acids are non-essential (dispensable) in humans, meaning they can be synthesized in sufficient quantities in the body. They are:
  • Alanine
  • Aspartic acid
  • Asparagine
  • Glutamic acid
  • Serine
  • Selenocysteine
  • Pyrrolysine

Animal vs plant based protein
Biological value (BV)
Biological value (BV) is a measure of the proportion of absorbed protein from a food which becomes incorporated into the proteins of the organism's body. It captures how readily the digested protein can be used in protein synthesis in the cells of the organism. Proteins are the major source of nitrogen in food. BV assumes protein is the only source of nitrogen and measures the amount of nitrogen ingested in relation to the amount which is subsequently excreted. The remainder must have been incorporated into the proteins of the organisms body. A ratio of nitrogen incorporated into the body over nitrogen absorbed gives a measure of protein "usability" – the BV.

Some examples: (100 would mean 100% of the nitrogen is incorporated)
Food
Biological value
Whey protein
96​
Whole soy bean
96​
Human milk
95​
Chicken egg
94​
Beef
92​
Cow milk
90​
Cheese
84​
Rice
83​
Fish
76​
Bean
65​
Whole wheat
64​
White flour
41​


Complete vs non-complete protein sources
As you can see in the table above, animal protein sources tend to have higher biological values, than plant ones, this is due to animal based food being a complete protein source (they contain the nine essential amino acids in ideal ratios) and plants, aside from soy and few others being incomplete protein sources (they don't contain the nine essential amino acids in ideal ratios).

Some animal (complete) protein sources
grams of protein per 100g
Cheeses
15-40​
Muscle meat, including fish
15-25​
Quark, cottage cheese
10-15​
Eggs
13​
Milk
3​

Complementary protein
Aside from soy, buckwheat and hempseeds, plants lack one or more essential amino acids.
  • In legumes' and vegetables case is usually methionine
  • Grains lack lysine and threonine
  • Nuts and seeds lack lysine
  • Corn lacks tryptophan and lysine.
To combat this, humanity have been combining certain plants with others that complement each other's amino acids profile. Like grains with legumes. Just think of food like Mexican burritos, Levantine tahini with hummus and pita, etc.
The inherent problems of plant protein sources
Despite complementing, plants are still should be a last resort (in case of famine) to intake protein, due to:

Antinutrients
Not a single living organism wants to be destroyed. Plants might not fight back with physical force unlike animals due to their stationary nature but they do harm those who eat them, with myriads of purpose produced chemicals called antinutrients. I do plan to make a comprehensive thread about plants' antinutrients, but for here's @Ada Mustang 's guide on them from BOTB:​
https://looksmax.org/threads/anti-nutrients-megathread-plants-are-dangerous.384992/

Carbohydrate content
Even if we disregard the abundance of harmful antinutrients found in plant protein sources, there's still one more critical flaw that cannot be ignored. Plants rich in protein more often than not are also filled to the brim with carbohydrates, at least that is certainly the case for legumes and grains (e.g. for every 10g of protein from wheat, you consume 80g of carbs). More in the IV. Carbohydrates section about why excessive carbohydrates, especially starches are horrible for you.
You cannot effecitvely lean down eating plant protein sources, since their high carbohydrate content keeps your blood sugar levels high. Another way to look at it is protein per calorie. You can consume as much protein as possible with the least amount of calories from animal sources, since e.g. lean meat is nothing but protein and water.
III. Lipids
Fats should be your main energy source. Either from your bodyfat or dietary sources, they provide more than double the amount of energy than carbs and proteins at 9.3 kcal (39 kJ) / g. My recommendation is to consume 2-3x the amount of your bodyweight in grams of fat, depending on your activity level, in combination with 2-3x protein and 30-50 grams of simple carbohydrates.​

Ketosis
Ketosis is a metabolic state characterized by elevated levels of ketone bodies in the blood or urine. Physiological ketosis is a normal response to low glucose availability, such as low-carbohydrate diets or fasting, that provides an additional energy source for the brain in the form of ketones. In physiological ketosis, ketones in the blood are elevated above baseline levels, but the body's acid–base homeostasis is maintained.

There may be side effects when changing over from glucose metabolism to fat metabolism. These may include headache, fatigue, dizziness, insomnia, difficulty in exercise tolerance, constipation, and nausea, especially in the first days and weeks after starting a ketogenic diet. Breath may develop a sweet, fruity flavor via production of acetone that is exhaled because of its high volatility. This is known as the adaptation period and it may last for weeks, depending on yoour level of carbohydrate intake beforehand.​

I don't recommend being in ketosis all the time. Preferably before and after exercise you should consume some simple carbs, to elevate your blood sugar level and stimulate an insulin response.

Saturated fatty acids
Although saturated fat has been demonized for decades by big pharma, it's an essential part of the diet. It should be your main energy source. It is essential for healthy testosterone levels. Feel free to consume it in any amounts, according to your needs based on your activity level.

Most animal fat is saturated. If the food is solid in room temperature, it is mostly made up of saturated fat.
View attachment 1677532
View attachment 1677529
View attachment 1677530
You should always cook your meal with either butter or animal fat (pork, goose, beef lard etc.). Never use vegetable oils for cooking, they are poison

Cholesterol
Another one that has been demonized for decades so that statine producing pharma companies and margarine producers with their lies can make profit from your harm.

Cholesterol is absolutely essential for androgen hormone production
View attachment 1677528
and although our body can synthetize some amount, it's good to consume as much as you can. It can only be found in animal based foods.

The best sources of cholesterol are eggs, red meat, organs, seafood and dairy, especially cheese. Always eat the opposite (((they))) tell you. Make no mistake, the foods they demonize are the most essential ones to be healthy and strong both in the body and mind.​

Monounsaturated fatty acids
Chemically speaking, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are fat molecules with one unsaturated double carbon bond. These fats are usually liquid when at room temperature and turn solid when chilled. They are found in many foods, also in meats among with other fats, not much more to say, you eat them either way.​

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)
Omega-3
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called Omega-3 oils, ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) characterized by the presence of a double bond, three atoms away from the terminal methyl group in their chemical structure. They are widely distributed in nature, being important constituents of animal lipid metabolism, and they play an important role in the human diet and in human physiology. The three types of omega−3 fatty acids involved in human physiology are α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

ALA can be found in plants, while DHA and EPA are found in algae and fish. Marine algae and phytoplankton are primary sources of omega−3 fatty acids. DHA and EPA accumulate in fish that eat these algae.

Mammals are unable to synthesize the essential omega−3 fatty acid ALA and can only obtain it through diet. However, they can use ALA, when available, to form EPA and DHA, by creating additional double bonds along its carbon chain (desaturation) and extending it (elongation). Namely, ALA (18 carbons and 3 double bonds) is used to make EPA (20 carbons and 5 double bonds), which is then used to make DHA (22 carbons and 6 double bonds). The ability to make the longer-chain omega−3 fatty acids from ALA may be impaired in aging. In foods exposed to air, unsaturated fatty acids are vulnerable to oxidation and rancidity.

The adequate daily intake level of ALA is set at 1.6 grams for adult men, but more might be better.

Animal food source
grams of Omega-3 per 100 g
Icelandic mackerel
5-6​
Herring
1.5-2​
Sardines
1-2​
Salmon
1-2​
Tuna
0.5-1​
Cod
0.15-0.25​
Omega-6
Despite some people demonizing them, omega-6 fatty acids are essential nutrients that the body cannot otherwise get, but they do cause inflamation if consumed in excess amounts.

Omega-6 is widely found in the meat of land animals. The meat of ruminants like beef contains less (especially if it's grass fed isntead of grain), while others like pork and chicken more of omega-6.

The omega 3:6 ratio
Despite what Ray Peaters claim, PUFAs aren't the ones that will kill you. They are essential nutrients, but two rules must be followed:

1.) Don't consume too much omega-6
2.) Keep the ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 consumed between 1:2 and 1:4.

The second rule is crucial and that's where the supposed danger of PUFAs come from. Excess omega-6 leads to inflammation and the average Westerner's omega-3/6 ratio stands at 1:15 or even higher (for some Americans it might even be 1:40). Eat enough omega-3 to compensate for the 6 and you will be fine.

III. Carbohydrates
Despite 99% of the population running on glucose, carbohydrates are in fact a non-essential macronutrient. In absence of them the body switches from glucolysis to ketosis, in another words using body & dietary fat for energy to keep running. The brain do needs glucose to function but glucose can be still made by the body without dietary carb intake through the demand-driven metabolic pathway of gluconeogenesis, which can convert proteins and lipids into glucose.​
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gluconeogenesis

With that said, I certainly don't recommend totally abstaining from carbohydrates as being in a constant state of ketosis is stressful for the body and ultimately catabolic over the long term (due to no blood sugar levels spiking - insulin is an anabolic hormone but it's good to use it moderation). Again, this is solely my anecdotal observation from multiple years of trial and error. I recommend a daily carbohydrate intake of around 30-50 grams (could be less but not more). This amount has proven to be the sweet spot for me. With it I am in anabolic state yet the amount is far too little to rollercoaster ride my blood sugar level, this way I can stay around at 10% body fat year around without limiting my calories. This is something guys running off of glucolysis only could dream of.

Hoping to lean down while being in glucolysis by restricting caloric intake and / or fasting is retarded. The body always responds to restricting with accumulation as it think you are amidst a famine. Burning fat is not it's trivial choice, it will burn anything from muscle mass to collagen. Carbohydrates hinder fat loss since the body cannot burn fat while constantly being in a state of high blood sugar levels. By abstaining from carbs, your body will naturally turn to your bodyfat deposits to energy, preserving your hard gained muscles in the process.

The 30-50 grams of daily carbs should all be simple carbs (sugars) and should come from dairy in the form of lactose (milk sugar). 2-3 cups of whole milk should do the trick.

Never ever consume starches, they are horrible nutrients that will only bloat you.
Fiber
Although the mainstream fitness advice is to consume enough both water soluble and non soluble fiber to avoid constipation, this couldn't be further from the truth. It does slow down the digestion of foods, which comes handy if you eat carb heavy dishes, since the elongated absorption also means a more gentler glycemic load.

Their usefullness ends here, if you otherwise don't consume carbs, there's no point of intaking ANY fiber as fiber is ultimately undigestable plant matter that rots in your intestines.

I didn't consume fiber aside from a few times in the last 3-4 years and I'm just fine. No constipation and I barely shit because my body absorbs all of the animal food I eat, unlike plant matter.

IV. Vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins are similar to oil and do not dissolve in water. They are most abundant in high fat foods and are much better absorbed into your bloodstream when you eat them with fat. The fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E, and K, are stored in the body for long periods of time and generally pose a greater risk for toxicity than water-soluble vitamins when consumed in excess.
Vitamin A
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin and an essential nutrient for humans.

Vitamin A occurs as two principal forms in foods:
a) as retinol, found in animal-sourced foods
b) as carotenoids (like beta carotene, lycopene etc.), in plant based foods

Deficiencies of vitamin A is relatively common worldwide and is linked to bad eyesight and more importantly from a looksmaxxing perspective, harmful effect to skin (increased susceptibility to skin infection and inflammation). In fact according to the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD), retinol (retinoid), a topical form of vitamin A, can help treat and prevent inflammatory acne lesions. The organization recommends using topical retinoids to treat several types of acne. Retinol may help improve acne by: decreasing inflammation.​

You can use this useful effect of it with tretinoin but as my personal anecdotal observations suggest, simply eating liver regularly also helps (as it has by far the most retinol in it out of any food).

On the other side, hypervitaminosis A, the oversdosing of retinol can do occur, since it's a fat-soluble vitamin we are talking about. You should take into account liver's high retinol content and consume it responsibly.

Carotenosis, more commonly known as the yellowish-warm discoloration of the skin due to the consumption of high amounts of carotenoids (beta carotene & lycopene) on the other hand is harmless. Consumption of greater than 30 mg/day for a prolonged period has been confirmed as leading to carotenemia. Carotenodermia is reversible upon cessation of excessive intake. You can read more on carotenoids in my skincare thread:​
https://looksmax.org/threads/guide-on-achieving-model-tier-skin.430153/

The reccomended daily amount of vitamin A is around 900μg RAE (retinol activity equivalent), with the tolerable upper limit being 3 000μg RAE / day. IU = International unit. 1 IU ~= 0.3μg of retinol

Animal food source
IU of retinol per 100g
Duck liver
40 000 (1350% of RDA)​
Turkey liver
27 000​
Pork liver
21 650​
Beef liver
16 900​
Chicken liver
11 000​

The best sources of beta carotene aside from supplements:
Plant food source
mg of ß-carotene per 100g
Sweet potato
9.4​
Carrots
9.2​
Pumpkin
6.9​

And the best sources of lycopene aside from supplements:
Plant food source
mg of lycopene per 100g
Sun-dried tomatoes
46​
Ketchup
10-18​
Tomato sauce
16​
Tomato paste
7.5​
Raw tomatoes
2.6​
https://looksmax.org/threads/ketchup-is-a-very-good-source-of-lycopene.484342/
Vitamin D
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and many other biological effects. In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). The former is only found in food derived from animals.

The major natural source of the vitamin is synthesis of cholecalciferol in the lower layers of epidermis of the skin through a chemical reaction that is dependent on sun exposure (specifically UVB radiation). Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol can be ingested from the diet and supplements. Only a few foods, such as the flesh of fatty fish, naturally contain significant amounts of vitamin D.

Vitamin D from the diet, or from skin synthesis, is biologically inactive. It is activated by two protein enzyme hydroxylation steps, the first in the liver and the second in the kidneys. As vitamin D can be synthesized in adequate amounts by most mammals if exposed to sufficient sunlight. The ability to synthetize vitamin D using sunlight is greatly hindered by melanin in the skin, which means the darker your skin is, the more dietary cholecalciferol you need.

An estimated one billion people worldwide are either vitamin D insufficient or deficient. Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in the European population. A diet with insufficient vitamin D in conjunction with inadequate sun exposure causes vitamin D deficiency, which makes you depressed, worsens calciumabsorption and testosterone production.

The recommended daily amount is around 10-15μg (400-600 IU).

The best source of vitamin D3 is by far fatty sea fish.
Animal food source
μg of vitamin D3 per 100g
Mackerel
16 (300% of RDA)​
Salmon
14​
Tuna
5.7​
Sardines
5​
Herring
4​
Eggs
1.5​

Cod liver and it's oil are ridiculously good sources of it. Just a table spoon of the latter contains more than twice of RDA.
Vitamin E
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that protects tissues while fat is burned for energy. Severe deficiency is rare, but low intakes of vitamin E have been linked to high oxidative stress and tissue damage. Vitamin E is unique in that it is fat soluble and literally weaves itself into the fatty outer layer of the cell (the cell membrane) to stand guard and neutralize damaging compounds.

The benefits of vitamin E extend beyond its antioxidant capabilities. It also disrupts platelet aggregation, meaning it has a slightly blood thinning effect. In this capacity it may have a positive impact on cardiovascular health – allowing blood to flow freely through blood vessels. This same effect is observed in other heart healthy nutrients like omega 3 fatty acids.​

The recommended daily intake of vitamin E is 15mg. Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin. So in nature, the higher concentrations will be in foods with fat, the best source being fatty fish.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin E per 100g
Fish roe
7​
Abalone
4​
Trout
2.8​
Sardines
2​
Mackerel
1.5​
Salmon
1.1​
Eggs
1​
Muscle meat in general
0.3​

The Daily Value (DV) is a reference amount set for adults to consume of a particular nutrient each day. The DV for vitamin E is set at 15 mg of alpha-tocopherol, the only form of vitamin E maintained in our blood plasma (*). Although this is the working number set for vitamin E in the US, the FNB acknowledges that more research is needed to accurately characterize the amount of vitamin E required for optimal human health.

Now, if you do a simple google search for food sources of vitamin E, you’ll come across many vegetable oils listed. But what you’ll want to keep in mind is that vegetable oils are typically high in inflammatory omega 6 fats and they are typically processed in a way that produces free radicals (highly manufactured, high heat and chemical laden processes). So how much sense does it make to get your anti-inflammatory and antioxidant nutrients if they come bathed in free radicals.Exactly, not much.​

In another words, vitamin E is another case where the requirement is likely lower if you abstain from plant food.
Vitamin K
Vitamin K refers to structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamers. The human body requires vitamin K for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.

Vitamin K1 is made by plants, and is found in highest amounts in green leafy vegetables, because it is directly involved in photosynthesis. It is active as a vitamin in animals and performs the classic functions of vitamin K, including its activity in the production of blood-clotting proteins. Animals may also convert it to vitamin K2, variant MK-4. Bacteria in the gut flora can also convert K1 (phylloquinone) into MK-4. All forms of K2 other than MK-4 can only be produced by bacteria, which use these during anaerobic respiration. Vitamin K3 (menadione), a synthetic form of vitamin K, was used to treat vitamin K deficiency, but because it interferes with the function of glutathione, it is no longer used this way in human nutrition.​

The adequate daily amount for vitamin K (US Academy of Medicine does not distuingish between vitamin K1 & K2) is set at 120μg. No sufficient data exists for tolerable upper limit.

Phylloquinone (K1) has been determined to have the bioavaibility of only 5-10% when consumed from plant based foods (thereduced bioavailability of plant-sourced vitamin K appears to be due to a tight binding of phylloquinone to the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts). K2 is superior to K1, so it's kinda redundant, but you can still get it from animal sources:​

Animal food source
μg of vitamin K1 per 100g
Egg yolk
7​
Butter
2​
Mackerel
1​
Beef chuck
0.6​

Some K2 sources:

Animal food source
μg of vitamin K2 per 100g
Cheese
300-500​
Goose liver
370​
Beef liver
106​
Milk
38​
Turkey sausage
37​
Chicken meat
36​
Bacon
35​

Water-soluble vitamins
Water-soluble vitamins aren’t long-term like fat-soluble vitamins. They don’t get stored in your body. They enter your bloodstream, and anything your body doesn’t need is eliminated through your urine. ‌Since water-soluble vitamins don’t last long in your body, they need to be replenished frequently.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Thiamine, also known as thiamin and vitamin B1, is a vitamin, an essential micronutrient, which cannot be made in the body.

The RDA for vitamin B1 is 1.2 mg for adult males.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B1 per 100g
Pork chops
0.7 (56% of RDA)​
Pork kidney
0.35​
Salmon
0.3​
Pork liver
0.3​
Mussels
0.3​
Chicken heart
0.15​
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
As a water-soluble vitamin, any riboflavin consumed in excess of nutritional requirements is not stored; it is either not absorbed or is absorbed and quickly excreted in urine, causing the urine to have a bright yellow tint. Natural sources of riboflavin include meat, fish and fowl, eggs, dairy products.

The RDA for vitamin B2 for adult males is 1.3mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B2 per 100g
Beef liver
3.4 (260% of RDA)​
Chicken liver
2.3​
Whey protein powder
2​
Eggs
0.4​
Cheese
0.4​
Turkey meat
0.2-0.4​
Beef meat
0.2​
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient. It can be manufactured by plants and animals from the amino acid tryptophan. Niacin is obtained in the diet from a variety of whole and processed foods, with highest contents in fortified packaged foods, meat, poultry, red fish such as tuna and salmon.​

The daily adequate intake level of vitamin B3 for adult males is 1.6mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B3 per 100g
Tuna
5-22​
Bacon
10​
Salmon
10​
Turkey
7-12​
Chicken
7-12​
Beef
4-8​
Pork
4-8​
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 is a water-soluble B vitamin and therefore an essential nutrient. All animals require pantothenic acid in order to synthesize coenzyme A (CoA) – essential for fatty acid metabolism – as well as to, in general, synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.

The adequate daily intake level for vitamin B5 is 5mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B5 per 100g
Beef liver7.2
Pork liver6.65
Chicken liver6.2
Pork heart2.5
Salmon1.1
Mackerel0.85
Beef meat0.65
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
The term refers to a group of six chemically similar compounds, i.e., "vitamers", which can be interconverted in biological systems. Its active form, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, serves as a coenzyme in more than 140 enzyme reactions in amino acid, glucose, and lipid metabolism.

The daily needed amount of vitamin B6 is around 1.7mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B6 per 100g
Whey protein concentrate
1.2​
Beef liver
1​
Tuna
1​
Beef meat
1​
Salmon
1​
Chicken meat
0.7​
Pork meat
0.6​
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
Biotin, also called vitamin B7, is one of the B vitamins. It is involved in a wide range of metabolic processes, both in humans and in other organisms, primarily related to the utilization of fats, carbohydrates, and amino acids.

Adequate daily intake for vitamin B7 is 30μg.

Animal food source
μg of vitamin B7 per 100g
Chicken liver
187​
Beef liver
42​
Eggs
21​
Salmon
6​
Pork chop
4.5​
Cheese
1.4​
Vitamin B9 (Folic acid)
Folate, also known as vitamin B9 and folacin, is one of the B vitamins. Manufactured folic acid, which is converted into folate by the body, is used as a dietary supplement and in food fortification as it is more stable during processing and storage. Folate is required for the body to make DNA and RNA and metabolise amino acids necessary for cell division. As humans cannot make folate, it is required in the diet, making it an essential nutrient. It occurs naturally in many foods.

The recommended adult daily intake of folate is 400 micrograms.
Animal food source
μg of folate per 100g
Chicken liver
578​
Calf liver
330​
Cheese
20-60​
Eggs
45​
Salmon
35​
Chicken meat
12​
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin involved in metabolism. It is one of eight B vitamins. It is required by animals, which use it as a cofactor in DNA synthesis, in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. It is important in the normal functioning of the nervous system via its role in the synthesis of myelin, and in the circulatory system in the maturation of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Plants do not need cobalamin and carry out the reactions with enzymes that are not dependent on it.

Vitamin B12 is the most chemically complex of all vitamins, and for humans, the only vitamin that must be sourced from animal-derived foods or supplements. Only some archaea and bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12. Most people in developed countries get enough B12 from the consumption of meat or foods with animal sources, it's only vegans who are sabotaging themselves as usual.

The required daily amount of vitamin B12 is around 2.5μg for adults.

Animals store vitamin B12 from their diets in their livers and muscles and some pass the vitamin into their eggs and milk. Meat, liver, eggs and milk are therefore sources of the vitamin for other animals, including humans. For humans, the bioavailability from eggs is less than 9%, compared to 40% to 60% from fish, fowl and meat. Insects are a source of B12 for animals (including other insects and humans). Animal-derived food sources with a high concentration of vitamin B12 include liver and other organ meats from lamb, veal, beef, and turkey; shellfish and crab meat.​
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue, the formation of collagen, and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters. It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function. It also functions as an antioxidant. Most animals are able to synthesize their own vitamin C. However, apes (including humans) and monkeys (but not all primates), most bats, some rodents, and certain other animals must acquire it from dietary sources.
Vitamin C needs a special mention if we are talking about the carnivore diet. The number 1 thing someone will say if you mention you only eat animal based food is but where do you get vitamin C from? You will get scurvy! Everyone knows the famous anecdote about British sailors getting scurvy on their long sea journeys and how they supposedly solved it by bringing citrus fruit with them. But the anecdote completely misses the real underlying problem, namely that ascorbic acid and glucose (sugar) are so similar, that they in fact compete for absorption in the human body:

https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/130/1/63/4686080

While many animals can use glucose to synthesize Vitamin C, humans and other primates such as apes and monkeys lost this capacity during the evolution process. Lack of L-gluconolactone oxidase enzyme in our bodies hinders us from synthesizing Vitamin C out of glucose.

But our bodies have devised ways to cope with this by creating a system that takes out the oxidized form of Vitamin C and transporting it in antioxidant form. Unlike animals that make their own Vitamin C, humans need low amounts of Vitamin C.

Researchers also found that glucose and Vitamin C have nearly identical molecular structure and use the same pathways for absorption into the bloodstream. As such, they compete with each other for uptake and glucose wins preferentially. So basically, when you consume a high-sugar, high carb meal, your body absorbs the glucose over Vitamin C.

The real reason why British sailors got scurvy is not the lack of vitamin C they consumed, it's the unmentioned fact that they ate a shitload of carb loaded biscuits, which in turn completely reduced their possible vitamin C absorption ability, skyrocketing the need for vitamin C, which they couldn't get until they decided to bring vitamin C rich fruits with them.

Eating fruits to get vitamin C is very retarded if you think about it. They might have high ascorbic acid content, but their high sugar content completely hinders it's absorption. That’s why drinking orange juice to increase Vitamin C is counterintuitive. It may contain a lot of Vitamin C, but you don’t get any of it because of the high sugar content.

TL;DR The more carbohydrates (glucose) you consume, the higher your vitamin C need is. If you follow a lowcarb diet, your ascorbic acid needs drops significantly, close to zero on a carnivore diet. No, you won't get scurvy if you only eat animal products.
Another important factor to note is that vitamin C's main function in the body at the end of the day is collagen production, which again, is already maxed out on a carnivore diet, since meat has hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine abundantly, the two building blocks of collagen. If you are looking for good skin, eating meat soup with bone marrow will do hundred times more for that than consuming muh fruits :feelsuhh:

If you’re worried about the antioxidant properties of Vitamin C, don’t be. Your body produces glutathione and uric acid, which are natural antioxidants. These substances are much more potent and take over many of Vitamin C’s roles in the body.​

Meat after all does contain vitamin C but keep in mind that ascorbic acid is very heat sensitive, overcooking your meat will destroy most of it, but again, it's not a problem.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin C per 100g
Beef spleen
45​
Pork liver
25​
Clams
20​
Chicken liver
18​
Pork kidney
13.3​
Trout
3.5​
Chicken heart
3.2​
Beef liver
1.3​

V. Minerals
Quantity elements
The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and magnesium. Calcium makes up around 1kg of adult body weight, with 99% of it contained in bones and teeth. Phosphorus makes up another 1%. These minerals together with the most abundant elements (oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen) make up 99.85% of the body.
Calcium (Ca)
Calcium is important for bone health, muscle contractions and blood clotting.

The RDA is set at 1g of calcium per day but a lot of people think this is too high. This is because calcium needs vitamin D and vitamin K2 to be absorbed into the body, and most modern diets are highly lacking in both of these.

Animal food source
mg of calcium per 100g
Cheese
750 - 1 400​
Canned small fish (like sardines, spruts) that has edible little bones in it
400​
Milk
120​
Quark
80​

The best source of calcium is dairy by far. Deficiency of it is highly correlated with lactose intolerance:
View attachment 1677538 View attachment 1677540

Dairy is so good in so many regards that if you happen to be lactose intolerant, I would highly suggest looking into lactose-free dairy products or getting lactase enzyme pills. With that said, dairy-free carnivore sources of calcium include small canned fish with little edible bones and you can make your own calcium powder by drying out and grinding eggshells.​
Magnesium (Mg)
Magnesium helps to maintain normal nerve function and muscle function, it supports your immune system and regulates your heartbeat. Sign of a magnesium deficiency include muscle cramps, muscle twitching, heart palpitations, fatigue, constipation. Overall it's a very important mineral for maximising physical output.

Intracellular magnesium is correlated with intracellular potassium. Increased magnesium lowers calcium and can either prevent hypercalcemia or cause hypocalcemia depending on the initial level. Both low and high protein intake conditions inhibit magnesium absorption, as does the amount of phosphate, phytate, and fat in the gut. Unabsorbed dietary magnesium is excreted in feces; absorbed magnesium is excreted in urine and sweat. The ideal ratio of calcium and magnesium is around 2:1.

Most people need around 400mg of magnesium a day, but this amount can go substantially higher if you are physically active. More is always better than not enough.​

Animal food source
mg of magnesium per 100g
Oyster
150​
Crab
110​
Mackerel
75​
Anchovies
45​
Tuna
35​
Muscle meat in general
25​
Cheese
25​
Liver
20​

As you can see seafood is by far the best source of magnesium in the animal kingdom, but they still don't contain a lot. Some amount do adds up but you should get the rest from water. Magnesium-rich water used to be the norm in nature, where our ancestors could drink water which has gone through layers of limestone.
IMG_1370_result.jpg

This is no longer a privilege for most of us, but the second best thing is drinking mineral water or by simply adding some more magnesium with supplements. It's very location dependant, but in many places tap water also contains a considerable amount of magnesium (usually near limestone mountains , who would have thought).​
Phosphorus (P)
RDA is around 700mg. The ideal calcium to phosphorus ratio is somewhere between 1:1 and 2:1.

Animal food source
mg of phosphorus per 100g
Sardines
480​
Cheese
350​
Liver
300​
Beef meat
200​
Pork meat
160​
Milk
90​

While phosphorus is naturally present in many foods, some processed foods also contain large amounts from additives. Phosphate additives are nearly 100% absorbable, and can contribute anywhere from 300 to 1,000 mg of additional phosphorus per day. Processed foods and beverages that often contain added phosphates include processed meats (beef, lamb, pork and chicken products are often marinated or injected with phosphate additives to keep the meat tender and juicy).​
Potassium (K)
Potassium is an essential nutrient that regulates fluid balance in cells and blood pressure. Symptoms of deficiency include increased blood pressure, kidney stones, constipation, muscle weakness, and irregular heartbeat.​

The daily recommended intake of potassium is at least 2,600 – 3,400 mg for an adult, though the USDA recommends 4,700 mg.

Animal food source
mg of potassium per 100g
Sardines
400​
Beef meat
375​
Salmon
370​
Chicken meat
300​
Liver
300​
Pork heart
300​
Milk
140​
Chicken eggs
140​
Cheese
140​

A cup of bone broth contains around 500mg of potassium, on top of this you can supplement more if needed with high-potassium salt subsitutes (these products replace a portion of sodium chloride found in table salt with potassium chloride).
Sodium (Na)
Sodium chloride (table salt) is the principal source of sodium. The U.S. Institute of Medicine set its tolerable upper intake level for sodium at 2.3 grams per day, but the average person consumes much more than that. Excess sodium consumption is linked with high blood pleasure in some individual and may cause bloat.

The carnivore diet and physical exercise (sweat) does increase sodium need, up to 5g / day.
Trace elements
The remaining ~18 ultratrace minerals comprise just 0.15% of the body, or about one hundred grams in total for the average person.
Chlorine (Cl)
The chloride anion is an essential nutrient for metabolism. Chlorine is needed for the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and in cellular pump functions. The main dietary source is table salt (sodium chloride).
Cobalt (Co)
In humans, consumption of cobalt-containing vitamin B12 meets all needs for cobalt.
Copper (Cu)
Copper is an essential trace element that is vital to the health of all living things. Copper is incorporated into a variety of proteins and metalloenzymes which perform essential metabolic functions; the micronutrient is necessary for the proper growth, development, and maintenance of bone, connective tissue, brain, heart, and many other body organs. Similarly to some other divalent ions, copper strongly interacts with lipid membranes and is involved in the formation of red blood cells, the absorption and utilization of iron, the metabolism of cholesterol and glucose, and the synthesis and release of life-sustaining proteins and enzymes. These enzymes in turn produce cellular energy and regulate nerve transmission, blood clotting, and oxygen transport.​

Copper absorption is hindered by an excess of iron and zinc intake.

The daily recommended amount of copper is around 1mg, with the tolerable upper intake level being at 5mg.

The best animal sources of copper are seafood and organ meat (especially liver):

Animal food source
mg of copper per 100g
Beef liver
9.8 (1 000% of RDA)​
Oysters
4.4​
Lobster
2​
Pork liver
0.7​
Crab
0.7​
Chicken liver
0.5​
Chicken heart
0.35​
Salmon
0.3​
Muscle meat in general
~ 0.08 (10% of RDA)​
Iodine (I)
Iodine is an essential element for life and, at atomic number Z = 53, is the heaviest element commonly needed by living organisms.

The recommended daily intake of iodine is around 150µg, with the tolerable upper intake level being at 1 100µg.
(The thyroid gland needs no more than 70 μg/day to synthesise the requisite daily amounts of T4 and T3. The higher recommended daily allowance levels of iodine seem necessary for optimal function of a number of body systems)

You shouldn't really worry about consuming enough iodine, since most people season their food with iodised salt (half a table spoon has the RDA of iodine). That said, seafood, eggs and dairy are good sources of it:

Animal food source
µg of iodine per 100g
Tuna
60 (40% of RDA)​
Cheese
40​
Milk
40​
Shrimp
40​
Chicken eggs
35​
Iron (Fe)
Iron is an essential bioelement for most forms of life, from bacteria to mammals. Its importance lies in its ability to mediate electron transfer. In the ferrous state (Fe2+), iron acts as an electron donor, while in the ferric state (Fe3+) it acts as an acceptor. Thus, iron plays a vital role in the catalysis of enzymatic reactions that involve electron transfer (reduction and oxidation, redox).

Heme vs non heme iron
View attachment 1677533
Heme iron is clearly superior to non-heme and is only found in animal sources.
View attachment 1677534

Iron deficiency is by far the most common mineral deficiency, because
a) in developing countries people can only afford shitty plant food with non-heme iron
b) in developed countries mentally ill vegans and vegetarians willfully shoot themselves in the foot :soy:

What little bad quality iron plants have is further worsened by the presence of antinutrients such as oxalates in leafy greens, which completely hinders it's absorption.

The recommended daily amount of iron is around 18 mg, more for women due to menstruation's blood loss. Heme iron is stupidly abundant in animal foods, if you are following an animal based diet it's not a matter of getting in enough, it's actually not consuming too much iron is the one you should worry about.​

Animal food source
mg of heme iron per 100g
Clam
28 (155% of RDA)​
Pork liver
18​
Lamb kidney
12​
Oyster
12​
Mussel
6.7​
Beef heart
6.4​
Muscle meat in general
2.5 (20% of RDA)​

Don't drink blood! I've seen numerous carnivore guys looking for places to buy blood from, but drinking it is a bad idea as it has too much iron in it.
Manganese (Mn)
Manganese deficiency in humans results in a number of medical problems. Relatively high dietary intake of other minerals such as iron, magnesium, and calcium may inhibit the proper intake of manganese (as they complete with it for absorption). A deficiency of manganese causes skeletal deformation in animals and inhibits the production of collagen. Humans absorb only about 1% to 5% of dietary manganese.​

The daily recommended amount of mangenese is around 2mg but it's very shady, pointed out well by this redditor:
View attachment 1677541

As with other nutrients, like vitamin C, adequate manganese intake in reality is probably much lower than what the RDA may suggest. Animal based foods may seem to be lacking in manganese but I'm telling you that's not a coincidence.

Animal food source
mg of manganese per 100g
Grass-fed bison
11.5​
Mussels
6​
Beef tripe
6​
Bass (fish)
1.15​
Trout
1.1​
Oysters
1​
Clams
0.9​
Molybdenium (Mo)
The recommended daily amount of molybdenium is at least 45μg, with the upper tolerable intake level set at 2 000μg.

Average daily intake varies between 120 and 240 μg/day, which is higher than dietary recommendations. Pork, lamb, and beef liver each have approximately 1.5 parts per million of molybdenum.


Animal food source
of RDA
100g of beef liver
230%​
Cup of yogurt
60%​
Cup of milk
50%​
Selenium (Se)
The RDA of selenium for adults is 55μg.

Animal food source
μg of selenium per 100g
Tuna
100​
Shrimp
60​
Salmon
55​
Sardines
50​
Beef
40​
Pork
40​
Sulfur (S)
Sulfur is the third most abundant mineral in your body. It is present in methionine and cysteine, which are two of the amino acids you use to make proteins. Both of these amino acids are present in your skin, hair, and nails where they help to make these tissues strong and flexible (collagen).

You obtain the sulfur your body needs from animal based proteins as well as other types of compounds such as sulfinates, allicin, and sulfides. Sulfur is also present in thiamin (vitamin B-1) and biotin (vitamin H).

No recommended daily amounts have been proposed for sulfur intake. Meat is a great source of methionine though.
VI. Water
I recommend a daily water intake level of at least 1 liter per 20 kilograms of your bodyweight. Always keep yourself hydrated by drinking many times but not a lot at each occasion. Avoid drinking from plastic bottles and don't worry about the fluoride meme as there are very few places where they put fluoride into drining water.

Mineral water can be a good supplement if you can get it in glass bottles. The ones that have high magnesium content are the most useful.
Couldn't agree more. Everytime I eat plants, I shit out the plants in their original form. Plants are indigestable.
 
K9Hunter

K9Hunter

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86
Mostly agree but I think you can cut and maintain a low bf% with more carbs than you suggest, especially if consumed before/after training as they essentially fill up the muscles and aid in performance.
Fiber is tricky as one could argue it helps the gut and intestinal bacteria but the whole microbiome area of research is still very unclear.
Animal protein spikes mTOR more than plant protein so from a longevity standpoint reducing animal proteins after you are done growing (like 25+) is something to consider, then later as you become old (65+) increasing it once again to carry more muscle and reduce chance of fatal injuries.
 
MoeZart

MoeZart

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I. Introduction
This guide is about all the essential nutrients and how to get all of them from animal food sources, as part of a carnivore diet or otherwise.

Overview:
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II. Protein
Proteins are large biomolecules and macromolecules that comprise one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells and organisms, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific 3D structure that determines its activity. Protein as a macronutrient has roughly the same energy content as carbohydrates, namely ~4 kcal (17 kJ) / g.

The required amount of protein is the topic of an age old debate. For non active persons the RDA recommends around 1 gram for each bodyweight kilogram of protein per day, but that's jackshit. You'll gona look like a muscle less skinnyfat faggot with that amount. There are another scientific papers that conclude there's no point consuming more than 1.5 g / bwkg as the excess is not absorbed. Personally from half a decade of personal experiments, my anecdotal opinion is in line with the broader carnivore community. I recommend 2-3 g of protein a day for each lean (fatless) bodyweight kilogram. The higher your protein consumption, the leaner you can be sustainably without muscle wastage.​

Amino acids
The most important aspect and defining characteristic of protein from a nutritional standpoint is its amino acid composition. Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. During human digestion, proteins are broken down in the stomach to smaller polypeptide chains via hydrochloric acid and protease actions. This is crucial for the absorption of the essential amino acids that cannot be biosynthesized by the body. There are 21 amino acids common to all life forms, of which nine humans cannot synthetize thus need to be consumed with food, six other amino acids are conditionnaly essential, meaning their synthesis can be limited under certain pathophysiological conditions and last but not least another six amino acids are non-essential, meaning the human body is able to synthetize them.
Essential amino acids (EAA)
There are nine essential amino acids which humans must obtain from their diet in order to prevent protein–energy malnutrition and resulting death. They are:
  • Phenylalanine
  • Valine
  • Threonine
  • Tryptophan
  • Methionine
  • Leucine
  • Isoleucine
  • Lysine
  • Histidine
Conditionally essential amino acids
Six other amino acids are considered conditionally essential in the human diet, meaning their synthesis can be limited under special pathophysiological conditions. They are:
  • Arginine
  • Cysteine
  • Glutamine
  • Glycine
  • Proline
  • Tyrosine
Non-essential amino acids
Six amino acids are non-essential (dispensable) in humans, meaning they can be synthesized in sufficient quantities in the body. They are:
  • Alanine
  • Aspartic acid
  • Asparagine
  • Glutamic acid
  • Serine
  • Selenocysteine
  • Pyrrolysine

Animal vs plant based protein
Biological value (BV)
Biological value (BV) is a measure of the proportion of absorbed protein from a food which becomes incorporated into the proteins of the organism's body. It captures how readily the digested protein can be used in protein synthesis in the cells of the organism. Proteins are the major source of nitrogen in food. BV assumes protein is the only source of nitrogen and measures the amount of nitrogen ingested in relation to the amount which is subsequently excreted. The remainder must have been incorporated into the proteins of the organisms body. A ratio of nitrogen incorporated into the body over nitrogen absorbed gives a measure of protein "usability" – the BV.

Some examples: (100 would mean 100% of the nitrogen is incorporated)
Food
Biological value
Whey protein
96​
Whole soy bean
96​
Human milk
95​
Chicken egg
94​
Beef
92​
Cow milk
90​
Cheese
84​
Rice
83​
Fish
76​
Bean
65​
Whole wheat
64​
White flour
41​


Complete vs non-complete protein sources
As you can see in the table above, animal protein sources tend to have higher biological values, than plant ones, this is due to animal based food being a complete protein source (they contain the nine essential amino acids in ideal ratios) and plants, aside from soy and few others being incomplete protein sources (they don't contain the nine essential amino acids in ideal ratios).

Some animal (complete) protein sources
grams of protein per 100g
Cheeses
15-40​
Muscle meat, including fish
15-25​
Quark, cottage cheese
10-15​
Eggs
13​
Milk
3​

Complementary protein
Aside from soy, buckwheat and hempseeds, plants lack one or more essential amino acids.
  • In legumes' and vegetables case is usually methionine
  • Grains lack lysine and threonine
  • Nuts and seeds lack lysine
  • Corn lacks tryptophan and lysine.
To combat this, humanity have been combining certain plants with others that complement each other's amino acids profile. Like grains with legumes. Just think of food like Mexican burritos, Levantine tahini with hummus and pita, etc.
The inherent problems of plant protein sources
Despite complementing, plants are still should be a last resort (in case of famine) to intake protein, due to:

Antinutrients
Not a single living organism wants to be destroyed. Plants might not fight back with physical force unlike animals due to their stationary nature but they do harm those who eat them, with myriads of purpose produced chemicals called antinutrients. I do plan to make a comprehensive thread about plants' antinutrients, but for here's @Ada Mustang 's guide on them from BOTB:​
https://looksmax.org/threads/anti-nutrients-megathread-plants-are-dangerous.384992/

Carbohydrate content
Even if we disregard the abundance of harmful antinutrients found in plant protein sources, there's still one more critical flaw that cannot be ignored. Plants rich in protein more often than not are also filled to the brim with carbohydrates, at least that is certainly the case for legumes and grains (e.g. for every 10g of protein from wheat, you consume 80g of carbs). More in the IV. Carbohydrates section about why excessive carbohydrates, especially starches are horrible for you.
You cannot effecitvely lean down eating plant protein sources, since their high carbohydrate content keeps your blood sugar levels high. Another way to look at it is protein per calorie. You can consume as much protein as possible with the least amount of calories from animal sources, since e.g. lean meat is nothing but protein and water.
III. Lipids
Fats should be your main energy source. Either from your bodyfat or dietary sources, they provide more than double the amount of energy than carbs and proteins at 9.3 kcal (39 kJ) / g. My recommendation is to consume 2-3x the amount of your bodyweight in grams of fat, depending on your activity level, in combination with 2-3x protein and 30-50 grams of simple carbohydrates.​

Ketosis
Ketosis is a metabolic state characterized by elevated levels of ketone bodies in the blood or urine. Physiological ketosis is a normal response to low glucose availability, such as low-carbohydrate diets or fasting, that provides an additional energy source for the brain in the form of ketones. In physiological ketosis, ketones in the blood are elevated above baseline levels, but the body's acid–base homeostasis is maintained.

There may be side effects when changing over from glucose metabolism to fat metabolism. These may include headache, fatigue, dizziness, insomnia, difficulty in exercise tolerance, constipation, and nausea, especially in the first days and weeks after starting a ketogenic diet. Breath may develop a sweet, fruity flavor via production of acetone that is exhaled because of its high volatility. This is known as the adaptation period and it may last for weeks, depending on yoour level of carbohydrate intake beforehand.​

I don't recommend being in ketosis all the time. Preferably before and after exercise you should consume some simple carbs, to elevate your blood sugar level and stimulate an insulin response.

Saturated fatty acids
Although saturated fat has been demonized for decades by big pharma, it's an essential part of the diet. It should be your main energy source. It is essential for healthy testosterone levels. Feel free to consume it in any amounts, according to your needs based on your activity level.

Most animal fat is saturated. If the food is solid in room temperature, it is mostly made up of saturated fat.
View attachment 1677532
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You should always cook your meal with either butter or animal fat (pork, goose, beef lard etc.). Never use vegetable oils for cooking, they are poison

Cholesterol
Another one that has been demonized for decades so that statine producing pharma companies and margarine producers with their lies can make profit from your harm.

Cholesterol is absolutely essential for androgen hormone production
View attachment 1677528
and although our body can synthetize some amount, it's good to consume as much as you can. It can only be found in animal based foods.

The best sources of cholesterol are eggs, red meat, organs, seafood and dairy, especially cheese. Always eat the opposite (((they))) tell you. Make no mistake, the foods they demonize are the most essential ones to be healthy and strong both in the body and mind.​

Monounsaturated fatty acids
Chemically speaking, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are fat molecules with one unsaturated double carbon bond. These fats are usually liquid when at room temperature and turn solid when chilled. They are found in many foods, also in meats among with other fats, not much more to say, you eat them either way.​

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)
Omega-3
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called Omega-3 oils, ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) characterized by the presence of a double bond, three atoms away from the terminal methyl group in their chemical structure. They are widely distributed in nature, being important constituents of animal lipid metabolism, and they play an important role in the human diet and in human physiology. The three types of omega−3 fatty acids involved in human physiology are α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

ALA can be found in plants, while DHA and EPA are found in algae and fish. Marine algae and phytoplankton are primary sources of omega−3 fatty acids. DHA and EPA accumulate in fish that eat these algae.

Mammals are unable to synthesize the essential omega−3 fatty acid ALA and can only obtain it through diet. However, they can use ALA, when available, to form EPA and DHA, by creating additional double bonds along its carbon chain (desaturation) and extending it (elongation). Namely, ALA (18 carbons and 3 double bonds) is used to make EPA (20 carbons and 5 double bonds), which is then used to make DHA (22 carbons and 6 double bonds). The ability to make the longer-chain omega−3 fatty acids from ALA may be impaired in aging. In foods exposed to air, unsaturated fatty acids are vulnerable to oxidation and rancidity.

The adequate daily intake level of ALA is set at 1.6 grams for adult men, but more might be better.

Animal food source
grams of Omega-3 per 100 g
Icelandic mackerel
5-6​
Herring
1.5-2​
Sardines
1-2​
Salmon
1-2​
Tuna
0.5-1​
Cod
0.15-0.25​
Omega-6
Despite some people demonizing them, omega-6 fatty acids are essential nutrients that the body cannot otherwise get, but they do cause inflamation if consumed in excess amounts.

Omega-6 is widely found in the meat of land animals. The meat of ruminants like beef contains less (especially if it's grass fed isntead of grain), while others like pork and chicken more of omega-6.

The omega 3:6 ratio
Despite what Ray Peaters claim, PUFAs aren't the ones that will kill you. They are essential nutrients, but two rules must be followed:

1.) Don't consume too much omega-6
2.) Keep the ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 consumed between 1:2 and 1:4.

The second rule is crucial and that's where the supposed danger of PUFAs come from. Excess omega-6 leads to inflammation and the average Westerner's omega-3/6 ratio stands at 1:15 or even higher (for some Americans it might even be 1:40). Eat enough omega-3 to compensate for the 6 and you will be fine.

III. Carbohydrates
Despite 99% of the population running on glucose, carbohydrates are in fact a non-essential macronutrient. In absence of them the body switches from glucolysis to ketosis, in another words using body & dietary fat for energy to keep running. The brain do needs glucose to function but glucose can be still made by the body without dietary carb intake through the demand-driven metabolic pathway of gluconeogenesis, which can convert proteins and lipids into glucose.​
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gluconeogenesis

With that said, I certainly don't recommend totally abstaining from carbohydrates as being in a constant state of ketosis is stressful for the body and ultimately catabolic over the long term (due to no blood sugar levels spiking - insulin is an anabolic hormone but it's good to use it moderation). Again, this is solely my anecdotal observation from multiple years of trial and error. I recommend a daily carbohydrate intake of around 30-50 grams (could be less but not more). This amount has proven to be the sweet spot for me. With it I am in anabolic state yet the amount is far too little to rollercoaster ride my blood sugar level, this way I can stay around at 10% body fat year around without limiting my calories. This is something guys running off of glucolysis only could dream of.

Hoping to lean down while being in glucolysis by restricting caloric intake and / or fasting is retarded. The body always responds to restricting with accumulation as it think you are amidst a famine. Burning fat is not it's trivial choice, it will burn anything from muscle mass to collagen. Carbohydrates hinder fat loss since the body cannot burn fat while constantly being in a state of high blood sugar levels. By abstaining from carbs, your body will naturally turn to your bodyfat deposits to energy, preserving your hard gained muscles in the process.

The 30-50 grams of daily carbs should all be simple carbs (sugars) and should come from dairy in the form of lactose (milk sugar). 2-3 cups of whole milk should do the trick.

Never ever consume starches, they are horrible nutrients that will only bloat you.
Fiber
Although the mainstream fitness advice is to consume enough both water soluble and non soluble fiber to avoid constipation, this couldn't be further from the truth. It does slow down the digestion of foods, which comes handy if you eat carb heavy dishes, since the elongated absorption also means a more gentler glycemic load.

Their usefullness ends here, if you otherwise don't consume carbs, there's no point of intaking ANY fiber as fiber is ultimately undigestable plant matter that rots in your intestines.

I didn't consume fiber aside from a few times in the last 3-4 years and I'm just fine. No constipation and I barely shit because my body absorbs all of the animal food I eat, unlike plant matter.

IV. Vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins are similar to oil and do not dissolve in water. They are most abundant in high fat foods and are much better absorbed into your bloodstream when you eat them with fat. The fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E, and K, are stored in the body for long periods of time and generally pose a greater risk for toxicity than water-soluble vitamins when consumed in excess.
Vitamin A
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin and an essential nutrient for humans.

Vitamin A occurs as two principal forms in foods:
a) as retinol, found in animal-sourced foods
b) as carotenoids (like beta carotene, lycopene etc.), in plant based foods

Deficiencies of vitamin A is relatively common worldwide and is linked to bad eyesight and more importantly from a looksmaxxing perspective, harmful effect to skin (increased susceptibility to skin infection and inflammation). In fact according to the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD), retinol (retinoid), a topical form of vitamin A, can help treat and prevent inflammatory acne lesions. The organization recommends using topical retinoids to treat several types of acne. Retinol may help improve acne by: decreasing inflammation.​

You can use this useful effect of it with tretinoin but as my personal anecdotal observations suggest, simply eating liver regularly also helps (as it has by far the most retinol in it out of any food).

On the other side, hypervitaminosis A, the oversdosing of retinol can do occur, since it's a fat-soluble vitamin we are talking about. You should take into account liver's high retinol content and consume it responsibly.

Carotenosis, more commonly known as the yellowish-warm discoloration of the skin due to the consumption of high amounts of carotenoids (beta carotene & lycopene) on the other hand is harmless. Consumption of greater than 30 mg/day for a prolonged period has been confirmed as leading to carotenemia. Carotenodermia is reversible upon cessation of excessive intake. You can read more on carotenoids in my skincare thread:​
https://looksmax.org/threads/guide-on-achieving-model-tier-skin.430153/

The reccomended daily amount of vitamin A is around 900μg RAE (retinol activity equivalent), with the tolerable upper limit being 3 000μg RAE / day. IU = International unit. 1 IU ~= 0.3μg of retinol

Animal food source
IU of retinol per 100g
Duck liver
40 000 (1350% of RDA)​
Turkey liver
27 000​
Pork liver
21 650​
Beef liver
16 900​
Chicken liver
11 000​

The best sources of beta carotene aside from supplements:
Plant food source
mg of ß-carotene per 100g
Sweet potato
9.4​
Carrots
9.2​
Pumpkin
6.9​

And the best sources of lycopene aside from supplements:
Plant food source
mg of lycopene per 100g
Sun-dried tomatoes
46​
Ketchup
10-18​
Tomato sauce
16​
Tomato paste
7.5​
Raw tomatoes
2.6​
https://looksmax.org/threads/ketchup-is-a-very-good-source-of-lycopene.484342/
Vitamin D
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and many other biological effects. In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). The former is only found in food derived from animals.

The major natural source of the vitamin is synthesis of cholecalciferol in the lower layers of epidermis of the skin through a chemical reaction that is dependent on sun exposure (specifically UVB radiation). Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol can be ingested from the diet and supplements. Only a few foods, such as the flesh of fatty fish, naturally contain significant amounts of vitamin D.

Vitamin D from the diet, or from skin synthesis, is biologically inactive. It is activated by two protein enzyme hydroxylation steps, the first in the liver and the second in the kidneys. As vitamin D can be synthesized in adequate amounts by most mammals if exposed to sufficient sunlight. The ability to synthetize vitamin D using sunlight is greatly hindered by melanin in the skin, which means the darker your skin is, the more dietary cholecalciferol you need.

An estimated one billion people worldwide are either vitamin D insufficient or deficient. Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in the European population. A diet with insufficient vitamin D in conjunction with inadequate sun exposure causes vitamin D deficiency, which makes you depressed, worsens calciumabsorption and testosterone production.

The recommended daily amount is around 10-15μg (400-600 IU).

The best source of vitamin D3 is by far fatty sea fish.
Animal food source
μg of vitamin D3 per 100g
Mackerel
16 (300% of RDA)​
Salmon
14​
Tuna
5.7​
Sardines
5​
Herring
4​
Eggs
1.5​

Cod liver and it's oil are ridiculously good sources of it. Just a table spoon of the latter contains more than twice of RDA.
Vitamin E
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that protects tissues while fat is burned for energy. Severe deficiency is rare, but low intakes of vitamin E have been linked to high oxidative stress and tissue damage. Vitamin E is unique in that it is fat soluble and literally weaves itself into the fatty outer layer of the cell (the cell membrane) to stand guard and neutralize damaging compounds.

The benefits of vitamin E extend beyond its antioxidant capabilities. It also disrupts platelet aggregation, meaning it has a slightly blood thinning effect. In this capacity it may have a positive impact on cardiovascular health – allowing blood to flow freely through blood vessels. This same effect is observed in other heart healthy nutrients like omega 3 fatty acids.​

The recommended daily intake of vitamin E is 15mg. Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin. So in nature, the higher concentrations will be in foods with fat, the best source being fatty fish.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin E per 100g
Fish roe
7​
Abalone
4​
Trout
2.8​
Sardines
2​
Mackerel
1.5​
Salmon
1.1​
Eggs
1​
Muscle meat in general
0.3​

The Daily Value (DV) is a reference amount set for adults to consume of a particular nutrient each day. The DV for vitamin E is set at 15 mg of alpha-tocopherol, the only form of vitamin E maintained in our blood plasma (*). Although this is the working number set for vitamin E in the US, the FNB acknowledges that more research is needed to accurately characterize the amount of vitamin E required for optimal human health.

Now, if you do a simple google search for food sources of vitamin E, you’ll come across many vegetable oils listed. But what you’ll want to keep in mind is that vegetable oils are typically high in inflammatory omega 6 fats and they are typically processed in a way that produces free radicals (highly manufactured, high heat and chemical laden processes). So how much sense does it make to get your anti-inflammatory and antioxidant nutrients if they come bathed in free radicals.Exactly, not much.​

In another words, vitamin E is another case where the requirement is likely lower if you abstain from plant food.
Vitamin K
Vitamin K refers to structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamers. The human body requires vitamin K for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.

Vitamin K1 is made by plants, and is found in highest amounts in green leafy vegetables, because it is directly involved in photosynthesis. It is active as a vitamin in animals and performs the classic functions of vitamin K, including its activity in the production of blood-clotting proteins. Animals may also convert it to vitamin K2, variant MK-4. Bacteria in the gut flora can also convert K1 (phylloquinone) into MK-4. All forms of K2 other than MK-4 can only be produced by bacteria, which use these during anaerobic respiration. Vitamin K3 (menadione), a synthetic form of vitamin K, was used to treat vitamin K deficiency, but because it interferes with the function of glutathione, it is no longer used this way in human nutrition.​

The adequate daily amount for vitamin K (US Academy of Medicine does not distuingish between vitamin K1 & K2) is set at 120μg. No sufficient data exists for tolerable upper limit.

Phylloquinone (K1) has been determined to have the bioavaibility of only 5-10% when consumed from plant based foods (thereduced bioavailability of plant-sourced vitamin K appears to be due to a tight binding of phylloquinone to the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts). K2 is superior to K1, so it's kinda redundant, but you can still get it from animal sources:​

Animal food source
μg of vitamin K1 per 100g
Egg yolk
7​
Butter
2​
Mackerel
1​
Beef chuck
0.6​

Some K2 sources:

Animal food source
μg of vitamin K2 per 100g
Cheese
300-500​
Goose liver
370​
Beef liver
106​
Milk
38​
Turkey sausage
37​
Chicken meat
36​
Bacon
35​

Water-soluble vitamins
Water-soluble vitamins aren’t long-term like fat-soluble vitamins. They don’t get stored in your body. They enter your bloodstream, and anything your body doesn’t need is eliminated through your urine. ‌Since water-soluble vitamins don’t last long in your body, they need to be replenished frequently.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Thiamine, also known as thiamin and vitamin B1, is a vitamin, an essential micronutrient, which cannot be made in the body.

The RDA for vitamin B1 is 1.2 mg for adult males.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B1 per 100g
Pork chops
0.7 (56% of RDA)​
Pork kidney
0.35​
Salmon
0.3​
Pork liver
0.3​
Mussels
0.3​
Chicken heart
0.15​
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
As a water-soluble vitamin, any riboflavin consumed in excess of nutritional requirements is not stored; it is either not absorbed or is absorbed and quickly excreted in urine, causing the urine to have a bright yellow tint. Natural sources of riboflavin include meat, fish and fowl, eggs, dairy products.

The RDA for vitamin B2 for adult males is 1.3mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B2 per 100g
Beef liver
3.4 (260% of RDA)​
Chicken liver
2.3​
Whey protein powder
2​
Eggs
0.4​
Cheese
0.4​
Turkey meat
0.2-0.4​
Beef meat
0.2​
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient. It can be manufactured by plants and animals from the amino acid tryptophan. Niacin is obtained in the diet from a variety of whole and processed foods, with highest contents in fortified packaged foods, meat, poultry, red fish such as tuna and salmon.​

The daily adequate intake level of vitamin B3 for adult males is 1.6mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B3 per 100g
Tuna
5-22​
Bacon
10​
Salmon
10​
Turkey
7-12​
Chicken
7-12​
Beef
4-8​
Pork
4-8​
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 is a water-soluble B vitamin and therefore an essential nutrient. All animals require pantothenic acid in order to synthesize coenzyme A (CoA) – essential for fatty acid metabolism – as well as to, in general, synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.

The adequate daily intake level for vitamin B5 is 5mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B5 per 100g
Beef liver7.2
Pork liver6.65
Chicken liver6.2
Pork heart2.5
Salmon1.1
Mackerel0.85
Beef meat0.65
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
The term refers to a group of six chemically similar compounds, i.e., "vitamers", which can be interconverted in biological systems. Its active form, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, serves as a coenzyme in more than 140 enzyme reactions in amino acid, glucose, and lipid metabolism.

The daily needed amount of vitamin B6 is around 1.7mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B6 per 100g
Whey protein concentrate
1.2​
Beef liver
1​
Tuna
1​
Beef meat
1​
Salmon
1​
Chicken meat
0.7​
Pork meat
0.6​
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
Biotin, also called vitamin B7, is one of the B vitamins. It is involved in a wide range of metabolic processes, both in humans and in other organisms, primarily related to the utilization of fats, carbohydrates, and amino acids.

Adequate daily intake for vitamin B7 is 30μg.

Animal food source
μg of vitamin B7 per 100g
Chicken liver
187​
Beef liver
42​
Eggs
21​
Salmon
6​
Pork chop
4.5​
Cheese
1.4​
Vitamin B9 (Folic acid)
Folate, also known as vitamin B9 and folacin, is one of the B vitamins. Manufactured folic acid, which is converted into folate by the body, is used as a dietary supplement and in food fortification as it is more stable during processing and storage. Folate is required for the body to make DNA and RNA and metabolise amino acids necessary for cell division. As humans cannot make folate, it is required in the diet, making it an essential nutrient. It occurs naturally in many foods.

The recommended adult daily intake of folate is 400 micrograms.
Animal food source
μg of folate per 100g
Chicken liver
578​
Calf liver
330​
Cheese
20-60​
Eggs
45​
Salmon
35​
Chicken meat
12​
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin involved in metabolism. It is one of eight B vitamins. It is required by animals, which use it as a cofactor in DNA synthesis, in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. It is important in the normal functioning of the nervous system via its role in the synthesis of myelin, and in the circulatory system in the maturation of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Plants do not need cobalamin and carry out the reactions with enzymes that are not dependent on it.

Vitamin B12 is the most chemically complex of all vitamins, and for humans, the only vitamin that must be sourced from animal-derived foods or supplements. Only some archaea and bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12. Most people in developed countries get enough B12 from the consumption of meat or foods with animal sources, it's only vegans who are sabotaging themselves as usual.

The required daily amount of vitamin B12 is around 2.5μg for adults.

Animals store vitamin B12 from their diets in their livers and muscles and some pass the vitamin into their eggs and milk. Meat, liver, eggs and milk are therefore sources of the vitamin for other animals, including humans. For humans, the bioavailability from eggs is less than 9%, compared to 40% to 60% from fish, fowl and meat. Insects are a source of B12 for animals (including other insects and humans). Animal-derived food sources with a high concentration of vitamin B12 include liver and other organ meats from lamb, veal, beef, and turkey; shellfish and crab meat.​
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue, the formation of collagen, and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters. It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function. It also functions as an antioxidant. Most animals are able to synthesize their own vitamin C. However, apes (including humans) and monkeys (but not all primates), most bats, some rodents, and certain other animals must acquire it from dietary sources.
Vitamin C needs a special mention if we are talking about the carnivore diet. The number 1 thing someone will say if you mention you only eat animal based food is but where do you get vitamin C from? You will get scurvy! Everyone knows the famous anecdote about British sailors getting scurvy on their long sea journeys and how they supposedly solved it by bringing citrus fruit with them. But the anecdote completely misses the real underlying problem, namely that ascorbic acid and glucose (sugar) are so similar, that they in fact compete for absorption in the human body:

https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/130/1/63/4686080

While many animals can use glucose to synthesize Vitamin C, humans and other primates such as apes and monkeys lost this capacity during the evolution process. Lack of L-gluconolactone oxidase enzyme in our bodies hinders us from synthesizing Vitamin C out of glucose.

But our bodies have devised ways to cope with this by creating a system that takes out the oxidized form of Vitamin C and transporting it in antioxidant form. Unlike animals that make their own Vitamin C, humans need low amounts of Vitamin C.

Researchers also found that glucose and Vitamin C have nearly identical molecular structure and use the same pathways for absorption into the bloodstream. As such, they compete with each other for uptake and glucose wins preferentially. So basically, when you consume a high-sugar, high carb meal, your body absorbs the glucose over Vitamin C.

The real reason why British sailors got scurvy is not the lack of vitamin C they consumed, it's the unmentioned fact that they ate a shitload of carb loaded biscuits, which in turn completely reduced their possible vitamin C absorption ability, skyrocketing the need for vitamin C, which they couldn't get until they decided to bring vitamin C rich fruits with them.

Eating fruits to get vitamin C is very retarded if you think about it. They might have high ascorbic acid content, but their high sugar content completely hinders it's absorption. That’s why drinking orange juice to increase Vitamin C is counterintuitive. It may contain a lot of Vitamin C, but you don’t get any of it because of the high sugar content.

TL;DR The more carbohydrates (glucose) you consume, the higher your vitamin C need is. If you follow a lowcarb diet, your ascorbic acid needs drops significantly, close to zero on a carnivore diet. No, you won't get scurvy if you only eat animal products.
Another important factor to note is that vitamin C's main function in the body at the end of the day is collagen production, which again, is already maxed out on a carnivore diet, since meat has hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine abundantly, the two building blocks of collagen. If you are looking for good skin, eating meat soup with bone marrow will do hundred times more for that than consuming muh fruits :feelsuhh:

If you’re worried about the antioxidant properties of Vitamin C, don’t be. Your body produces glutathione and uric acid, which are natural antioxidants. These substances are much more potent and take over many of Vitamin C’s roles in the body.​

Meat after all does contain vitamin C but keep in mind that ascorbic acid is very heat sensitive, overcooking your meat will destroy most of it, but again, it's not a problem.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin C per 100g
Beef spleen
45​
Pork liver
25​
Clams
20​
Chicken liver
18​
Pork kidney
13.3​
Trout
3.5​
Chicken heart
3.2​
Beef liver
1.3​

V. Minerals
Quantity elements
The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and magnesium. Calcium makes up around 1kg of adult body weight, with 99% of it contained in bones and teeth. Phosphorus makes up another 1%. These minerals together with the most abundant elements (oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen) make up 99.85% of the body.
Calcium (Ca)
Calcium is important for bone health, muscle contractions and blood clotting.

The RDA is set at 1g of calcium per day but a lot of people think this is too high. This is because calcium needs vitamin D and vitamin K2 to be absorbed into the body, and most modern diets are highly lacking in both of these.

Animal food source
mg of calcium per 100g
Cheese
750 - 1 400​
Canned small fish (like sardines, spruts) that has edible little bones in it
400​
Milk
120​
Quark
80​

The best source of calcium is dairy by far. Deficiency of it is highly correlated with lactose intolerance:
View attachment 1677538 View attachment 1677540

Dairy is so good in so many regards that if you happen to be lactose intolerant, I would highly suggest looking into lactose-free dairy products or getting lactase enzyme pills. With that said, dairy-free carnivore sources of calcium include small canned fish with little edible bones and you can make your own calcium powder by drying out and grinding eggshells.​
Magnesium (Mg)
Magnesium helps to maintain normal nerve function and muscle function, it supports your immune system and regulates your heartbeat. Sign of a magnesium deficiency include muscle cramps, muscle twitching, heart palpitations, fatigue, constipation. Overall it's a very important mineral for maximising physical output.

Intracellular magnesium is correlated with intracellular potassium. Increased magnesium lowers calcium and can either prevent hypercalcemia or cause hypocalcemia depending on the initial level. Both low and high protein intake conditions inhibit magnesium absorption, as does the amount of phosphate, phytate, and fat in the gut. Unabsorbed dietary magnesium is excreted in feces; absorbed magnesium is excreted in urine and sweat. The ideal ratio of calcium and magnesium is around 2:1.

Most people need around 400mg of magnesium a day, but this amount can go substantially higher if you are physically active. More is always better than not enough.​

Animal food source
mg of magnesium per 100g
Oyster
150​
Crab
110​
Mackerel
75​
Anchovies
45​
Tuna
35​
Muscle meat in general
25​
Cheese
25​
Liver
20​

As you can see seafood is by far the best source of magnesium in the animal kingdom, but they still don't contain a lot. Some amount do adds up but you should get the rest from water. Magnesium-rich water used to be the norm in nature, where our ancestors could drink water which has gone through layers of limestone.
IMG_1370_result.jpg

This is no longer a privilege for most of us, but the second best thing is drinking mineral water or by simply adding some more magnesium with supplements. It's very location dependant, but in many places tap water also contains a considerable amount of magnesium (usually near limestone mountains , who would have thought).​
Phosphorus (P)
RDA is around 700mg. The ideal calcium to phosphorus ratio is somewhere between 1:1 and 2:1.

Animal food source
mg of phosphorus per 100g
Sardines
480​
Cheese
350​
Liver
300​
Beef meat
200​
Pork meat
160​
Milk
90​

While phosphorus is naturally present in many foods, some processed foods also contain large amounts from additives. Phosphate additives are nearly 100% absorbable, and can contribute anywhere from 300 to 1,000 mg of additional phosphorus per day. Processed foods and beverages that often contain added phosphates include processed meats (beef, lamb, pork and chicken products are often marinated or injected with phosphate additives to keep the meat tender and juicy).​
Potassium (K)
Potassium is an essential nutrient that regulates fluid balance in cells and blood pressure. Symptoms of deficiency include increased blood pressure, kidney stones, constipation, muscle weakness, and irregular heartbeat.​

The daily recommended intake of potassium is at least 2,600 – 3,400 mg for an adult, though the USDA recommends 4,700 mg.

Animal food source
mg of potassium per 100g
Sardines
400​
Beef meat
375​
Salmon
370​
Chicken meat
300​
Liver
300​
Pork heart
300​
Milk
140​
Chicken eggs
140​
Cheese
140​

A cup of bone broth contains around 500mg of potassium, on top of this you can supplement more if needed with high-potassium salt subsitutes (these products replace a portion of sodium chloride found in table salt with potassium chloride).
Sodium (Na)
Sodium chloride (table salt) is the principal source of sodium. The U.S. Institute of Medicine set its tolerable upper intake level for sodium at 2.3 grams per day, but the average person consumes much more than that. Excess sodium consumption is linked with high blood pleasure in some individual and may cause bloat.

The carnivore diet and physical exercise (sweat) does increase sodium need, up to 5g / day.
Trace elements
The remaining ~18 ultratrace minerals comprise just 0.15% of the body, or about one hundred grams in total for the average person.
Chlorine (Cl)
The chloride anion is an essential nutrient for metabolism. Chlorine is needed for the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and in cellular pump functions. The main dietary source is table salt (sodium chloride).
Cobalt (Co)
In humans, consumption of cobalt-containing vitamin B12 meets all needs for cobalt.
Copper (Cu)
Copper is an essential trace element that is vital to the health of all living things. Copper is incorporated into a variety of proteins and metalloenzymes which perform essential metabolic functions; the micronutrient is necessary for the proper growth, development, and maintenance of bone, connective tissue, brain, heart, and many other body organs. Similarly to some other divalent ions, copper strongly interacts with lipid membranes and is involved in the formation of red blood cells, the absorption and utilization of iron, the metabolism of cholesterol and glucose, and the synthesis and release of life-sustaining proteins and enzymes. These enzymes in turn produce cellular energy and regulate nerve transmission, blood clotting, and oxygen transport.​

Copper absorption is hindered by an excess of iron and zinc intake.

The daily recommended amount of copper is around 1mg, with the tolerable upper intake level being at 5mg.

The best animal sources of copper are seafood and organ meat (especially liver):

Animal food source
mg of copper per 100g
Beef liver
9.8 (1 000% of RDA)​
Oysters
4.4​
Lobster
2​
Pork liver
0.7​
Crab
0.7​
Chicken liver
0.5​
Chicken heart
0.35​
Salmon
0.3​
Muscle meat in general
~ 0.08 (10% of RDA)​
Iodine (I)
Iodine is an essential element for life and, at atomic number Z = 53, is the heaviest element commonly needed by living organisms.

The recommended daily intake of iodine is around 150µg, with the tolerable upper intake level being at 1 100µg.
(The thyroid gland needs no more than 70 μg/day to synthesise the requisite daily amounts of T4 and T3. The higher recommended daily allowance levels of iodine seem necessary for optimal function of a number of body systems)

You shouldn't really worry about consuming enough iodine, since most people season their food with iodised salt (half a table spoon has the RDA of iodine). That said, seafood, eggs and dairy are good sources of it:

Animal food source
µg of iodine per 100g
Tuna
60 (40% of RDA)​
Cheese
40​
Milk
40​
Shrimp
40​
Chicken eggs
35​
Iron (Fe)
Iron is an essential bioelement for most forms of life, from bacteria to mammals. Its importance lies in its ability to mediate electron transfer. In the ferrous state (Fe2+), iron acts as an electron donor, while in the ferric state (Fe3+) it acts as an acceptor. Thus, iron plays a vital role in the catalysis of enzymatic reactions that involve electron transfer (reduction and oxidation, redox).

Heme vs non heme iron
View attachment 1677533
Heme iron is clearly superior to non-heme and is only found in animal sources.
View attachment 1677534

Iron deficiency is by far the most common mineral deficiency, because
a) in developing countries people can only afford shitty plant food with non-heme iron
b) in developed countries mentally ill vegans and vegetarians willfully shoot themselves in the foot :soy:

What little bad quality iron plants have is further worsened by the presence of antinutrients such as oxalates in leafy greens, which completely hinders it's absorption.

The recommended daily amount of iron is around 18 mg, more for women due to menstruation's blood loss. Heme iron is stupidly abundant in animal foods, if you are following an animal based diet it's not a matter of getting in enough, it's actually not consuming too much iron is the one you should worry about.​

Animal food source
mg of heme iron per 100g
Clam
28 (155% of RDA)​
Pork liver
18​
Lamb kidney
12​
Oyster
12​
Mussel
6.7​
Beef heart
6.4​
Muscle meat in general
2.5 (20% of RDA)​

Don't drink blood! I've seen numerous carnivore guys looking for places to buy blood from, but drinking it is a bad idea as it has too much iron in it.
Manganese (Mn)
Manganese deficiency in humans results in a number of medical problems. Relatively high dietary intake of other minerals such as iron, magnesium, and calcium may inhibit the proper intake of manganese (as they complete with it for absorption). A deficiency of manganese causes skeletal deformation in animals and inhibits the production of collagen. Humans absorb only about 1% to 5% of dietary manganese.​

The daily recommended amount of mangenese is around 2mg but it's very shady, pointed out well by this redditor:
View attachment 1677541

As with other nutrients, like vitamin C, adequate manganese intake in reality is probably much lower than what the RDA may suggest. Animal based foods may seem to be lacking in manganese but I'm telling you that's not a coincidence.

Animal food source
mg of manganese per 100g
Grass-fed bison
11.5​
Mussels
6​
Beef tripe
6​
Bass (fish)
1.15​
Trout
1.1​
Oysters
1​
Clams
0.9​
Molybdenium (Mo)
The recommended daily amount of molybdenium is at least 45μg, with the upper tolerable intake level set at 2 000μg.

Average daily intake varies between 120 and 240 μg/day, which is higher than dietary recommendations. Pork, lamb, and beef liver each have approximately 1.5 parts per million of molybdenum.


Animal food source
of RDA
100g of beef liver
230%​
Cup of yogurt
60%​
Cup of milk
50%​
Selenium (Se)
The RDA of selenium for adults is 55μg.

Animal food source
μg of selenium per 100g
Tuna
100​
Shrimp
60​
Salmon
55​
Sardines
50​
Beef
40​
Pork
40​
Sulfur (S)
Sulfur is the third most abundant mineral in your body. It is present in methionine and cysteine, which are two of the amino acids you use to make proteins. Both of these amino acids are present in your skin, hair, and nails where they help to make these tissues strong and flexible (collagen).

You obtain the sulfur your body needs from animal based proteins as well as other types of compounds such as sulfinates, allicin, and sulfides. Sulfur is also present in thiamin (vitamin B-1) and biotin (vitamin H).

No recommended daily amounts have been proposed for sulfur intake. Meat is a great source of methionine though.
VI. Water
I recommend a daily water intake level of at least 1 liter per 20 kilograms of your bodyweight. Always keep yourself hydrated by drinking many times but not a lot at each occasion. Avoid drinking from plastic bottles and don't worry about the fluoride meme as there are very few places where they put fluoride into drining water.

Mineral water can be a good supplement if you can get it in glass bottles. The ones that have high magnesium content are the most useful.
@Alexanderr give VIP quick
Do It Episode 3 GIF by Star Wars
 
Q

qsabathi

Iron
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What do you eat to get so much protein every day? I barely manage 250g. And it’s a lot of work to even make that much food.
 
Halloweener

Halloweener

Iron
Joined
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I. Introduction
This guide is about all the essential nutrients and how to get all of them from animal food sources, as part of a carnivore diet or otherwise.

Overview:
View attachment 1677526
View attachment 1677527

II. Protein
Proteins are large biomolecules and macromolecules that comprise one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells and organisms, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific 3D structure that determines its activity. Protein as a macronutrient has roughly the same energy content as carbohydrates, namely ~4 kcal (17 kJ) / g.

The required amount of protein is the topic of an age old debate. For non active persons the RDA recommends around 1 gram for each bodyweight kilogram of protein per day, but that's jackshit. You'll gona look like a muscle less skinnyfat faggot with that amount. There are another scientific papers that conclude there's no point consuming more than 1.5 g / bwkg as the excess is not absorbed. Personally from half a decade of personal experiments, my anecdotal opinion is in line with the broader carnivore community. I recommend 2-3 g of protein a day for each lean (fatless) bodyweight kilogram. The higher your protein consumption, the leaner you can be sustainably without muscle wastage.​

Amino acids
The most important aspect and defining characteristic of protein from a nutritional standpoint is its amino acid composition. Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. During human digestion, proteins are broken down in the stomach to smaller polypeptide chains via hydrochloric acid and protease actions. This is crucial for the absorption of the essential amino acids that cannot be biosynthesized by the body. There are 21 amino acids common to all life forms, of which nine humans cannot synthetize thus need to be consumed with food, six other amino acids are conditionnaly essential, meaning their synthesis can be limited under certain pathophysiological conditions and last but not least another six amino acids are non-essential, meaning the human body is able to synthetize them.
Essential amino acids (EAA)
There are nine essential amino acids which humans must obtain from their diet in order to prevent protein–energy malnutrition and resulting death. They are:
  • Phenylalanine
  • Valine
  • Threonine
  • Tryptophan
  • Methionine
  • Leucine
  • Isoleucine
  • Lysine
  • Histidine
Conditionally essential amino acids
Six other amino acids are considered conditionally essential in the human diet, meaning their synthesis can be limited under special pathophysiological conditions. They are:
  • Arginine
  • Cysteine
  • Glutamine
  • Glycine
  • Proline
  • Tyrosine
Non-essential amino acids
Six amino acids are non-essential (dispensable) in humans, meaning they can be synthesized in sufficient quantities in the body. They are:
  • Alanine
  • Aspartic acid
  • Asparagine
  • Glutamic acid
  • Serine
  • Selenocysteine
  • Pyrrolysine

Animal vs plant based protein
Biological value (BV)
Biological value (BV) is a measure of the proportion of absorbed protein from a food which becomes incorporated into the proteins of the organism's body. It captures how readily the digested protein can be used in protein synthesis in the cells of the organism. Proteins are the major source of nitrogen in food. BV assumes protein is the only source of nitrogen and measures the amount of nitrogen ingested in relation to the amount which is subsequently excreted. The remainder must have been incorporated into the proteins of the organisms body. A ratio of nitrogen incorporated into the body over nitrogen absorbed gives a measure of protein "usability" – the BV.

Some examples: (100 would mean 100% of the nitrogen is incorporated)
Food
Biological value
Whey protein
96​
Whole soy bean
96​
Human milk
95​
Chicken egg
94​
Beef
92​
Cow milk
90​
Cheese
84​
Rice
83​
Fish
76​
Bean
65​
Whole wheat
64​
White flour
41​


Complete vs non-complete protein sources
As you can see in the table above, animal protein sources tend to have higher biological values, than plant ones, this is due to animal based food being a complete protein source (they contain the nine essential amino acids in ideal ratios) and plants, aside from soy and few others being incomplete protein sources (they don't contain the nine essential amino acids in ideal ratios).

Some animal (complete) protein sources
grams of protein per 100g
Cheeses
15-40​
Muscle meat, including fish
15-25​
Quark, cottage cheese
10-15​
Eggs
13​
Milk
3​

Complementary protein
Aside from soy, buckwheat and hempseeds, plants lack one or more essential amino acids.
  • In legumes' and vegetables case is usually methionine
  • Grains lack lysine and threonine
  • Nuts and seeds lack lysine
  • Corn lacks tryptophan and lysine.
To combat this, humanity have been combining certain plants with others that complement each other's amino acids profile. Like grains with legumes. Just think of food like Mexican burritos, Levantine tahini with hummus and pita, etc.
The inherent problems of plant protein sources
Despite complementing, plants are still should be a last resort (in case of famine) to intake protein, due to:

Antinutrients
Not a single living organism wants to be destroyed. Plants might not fight back with physical force unlike animals due to their stationary nature but they do harm those who eat them, with myriads of purpose produced chemicals called antinutrients. I do plan to make a comprehensive thread about plants' antinutrients, but for here's @Ada Mustang 's guide on them from BOTB:​
https://looksmax.org/threads/anti-nutrients-megathread-plants-are-dangerous.384992/

Carbohydrate content
Even if we disregard the abundance of harmful antinutrients found in plant protein sources, there's still one more critical flaw that cannot be ignored. Plants rich in protein more often than not are also filled to the brim with carbohydrates, at least that is certainly the case for legumes and grains (e.g. for every 10g of protein from wheat, you consume 80g of carbs). More in the IV. Carbohydrates section about why excessive carbohydrates, especially starches are horrible for you.
You cannot effecitvely lean down eating plant protein sources, since their high carbohydrate content keeps your blood sugar levels high. Another way to look at it is protein per calorie. You can consume as much protein as possible with the least amount of calories from animal sources, since e.g. lean meat is nothing but protein and water.
III. Lipids
Fats should be your main energy source. Either from your bodyfat or dietary sources, they provide more than double the amount of energy than carbs and proteins at 9.3 kcal (39 kJ) / g. My recommendation is to consume 2-3x the amount of your bodyweight in grams of fat, depending on your activity level, in combination with 2-3x protein and 30-50 grams of simple carbohydrates.​

Ketosis
Ketosis is a metabolic state characterized by elevated levels of ketone bodies in the blood or urine. Physiological ketosis is a normal response to low glucose availability, such as low-carbohydrate diets or fasting, that provides an additional energy source for the brain in the form of ketones. In physiological ketosis, ketones in the blood are elevated above baseline levels, but the body's acid–base homeostasis is maintained.

There may be side effects when changing over from glucose metabolism to fat metabolism. These may include headache, fatigue, dizziness, insomnia, difficulty in exercise tolerance, constipation, and nausea, especially in the first days and weeks after starting a ketogenic diet. Breath may develop a sweet, fruity flavor via production of acetone that is exhaled because of its high volatility. This is known as the adaptation period and it may last for weeks, depending on yoour level of carbohydrate intake beforehand.​

I don't recommend being in ketosis all the time. Preferably before and after exercise you should consume some simple carbs, to elevate your blood sugar level and stimulate an insulin response.

Saturated fatty acids
Although saturated fat has been demonized for decades by big pharma, it's an essential part of the diet. It should be your main energy source. It is essential for healthy testosterone levels. Feel free to consume it in any amounts, according to your needs based on your activity level.

Most animal fat is saturated. If the food is solid in room temperature, it is mostly made up of saturated fat.
View attachment 1677532
View attachment 1677529
View attachment 1677530
You should always cook your meal with either butter or animal fat (pork, goose, beef lard etc.). Never use vegetable oils for cooking, they are poison

Cholesterol
Another one that has been demonized for decades so that statine producing pharma companies and margarine producers with their lies can make profit from your harm.

Cholesterol is absolutely essential for androgen hormone production
View attachment 1677528
and although our body can synthetize some amount, it's good to consume as much as you can. It can only be found in animal based foods.

The best sources of cholesterol are eggs, red meat, organs, seafood and dairy, especially cheese. Always eat the opposite (((they))) tell you. Make no mistake, the foods they demonize are the most essential ones to be healthy and strong both in the body and mind.​

Monounsaturated fatty acids
Chemically speaking, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are fat molecules with one unsaturated double carbon bond. These fats are usually liquid when at room temperature and turn solid when chilled. They are found in many foods, also in meats among with other fats, not much more to say, you eat them either way.​

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)
Omega-3
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called Omega-3 oils, ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) characterized by the presence of a double bond, three atoms away from the terminal methyl group in their chemical structure. They are widely distributed in nature, being important constituents of animal lipid metabolism, and they play an important role in the human diet and in human physiology. The three types of omega−3 fatty acids involved in human physiology are α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

ALA can be found in plants, while DHA and EPA are found in algae and fish. Marine algae and phytoplankton are primary sources of omega−3 fatty acids. DHA and EPA accumulate in fish that eat these algae.

Mammals are unable to synthesize the essential omega−3 fatty acid ALA and can only obtain it through diet. However, they can use ALA, when available, to form EPA and DHA, by creating additional double bonds along its carbon chain (desaturation) and extending it (elongation). Namely, ALA (18 carbons and 3 double bonds) is used to make EPA (20 carbons and 5 double bonds), which is then used to make DHA (22 carbons and 6 double bonds). The ability to make the longer-chain omega−3 fatty acids from ALA may be impaired in aging. In foods exposed to air, unsaturated fatty acids are vulnerable to oxidation and rancidity.

The adequate daily intake level of ALA is set at 1.6 grams for adult men, but more might be better.

Animal food source
grams of Omega-3 per 100 g
Icelandic mackerel
5-6​
Herring
1.5-2​
Sardines
1-2​
Salmon
1-2​
Tuna
0.5-1​
Cod
0.15-0.25​
Omega-6
Despite some people demonizing them, omega-6 fatty acids are essential nutrients that the body cannot otherwise get, but they do cause inflamation if consumed in excess amounts.

Omega-6 is widely found in the meat of land animals. The meat of ruminants like beef contains less (especially if it's grass fed isntead of grain), while others like pork and chicken more of omega-6.

The omega 3:6 ratio
Despite what Ray Peaters claim, PUFAs aren't the ones that will kill you. They are essential nutrients, but two rules must be followed:

1.) Don't consume too much omega-6
2.) Keep the ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 consumed between 1:2 and 1:4.

The second rule is crucial and that's where the supposed danger of PUFAs come from. Excess omega-6 leads to inflammation and the average Westerner's omega-3/6 ratio stands at 1:15 or even higher (for some Americans it might even be 1:40). Eat enough omega-3 to compensate for the 6 and you will be fine.

III. Carbohydrates
Despite 99% of the population running on glucose, carbohydrates are in fact a non-essential macronutrient. In absence of them the body switches from glucolysis to ketosis, in another words using body & dietary fat for energy to keep running. The brain do needs glucose to function but glucose can be still made by the body without dietary carb intake through the demand-driven metabolic pathway of gluconeogenesis, which can convert proteins and lipids into glucose.​
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gluconeogenesis

With that said, I certainly don't recommend totally abstaining from carbohydrates as being in a constant state of ketosis is stressful for the body and ultimately catabolic over the long term (due to no blood sugar levels spiking - insulin is an anabolic hormone but it's good to use it moderation). Again, this is solely my anecdotal observation from multiple years of trial and error. I recommend a daily carbohydrate intake of around 30-50 grams (could be less but not more). This amount has proven to be the sweet spot for me. With it I am in anabolic state yet the amount is far too little to rollercoaster ride my blood sugar level, this way I can stay around at 10% body fat year around without limiting my calories. This is something guys running off of glucolysis only could dream of.

Hoping to lean down while being in glucolysis by restricting caloric intake and / or fasting is retarded. The body always responds to restricting with accumulation as it think you are amidst a famine. Burning fat is not it's trivial choice, it will burn anything from muscle mass to collagen. Carbohydrates hinder fat loss since the body cannot burn fat while constantly being in a state of high blood sugar levels. By abstaining from carbs, your body will naturally turn to your bodyfat deposits to energy, preserving your hard gained muscles in the process.

The 30-50 grams of daily carbs should all be simple carbs (sugars) and should come from dairy in the form of lactose (milk sugar). 2-3 cups of whole milk should do the trick.

Never ever consume starches, they are horrible nutrients that will only bloat you.
Fiber
Although the mainstream fitness advice is to consume enough both water soluble and non soluble fiber to avoid constipation, this couldn't be further from the truth. It does slow down the digestion of foods, which comes handy if you eat carb heavy dishes, since the elongated absorption also means a more gentler glycemic load.

Their usefullness ends here, if you otherwise don't consume carbs, there's no point of intaking ANY fiber as fiber is ultimately undigestable plant matter that rots in your intestines.

I didn't consume fiber aside from a few times in the last 3-4 years and I'm just fine. No constipation and I barely shit because my body absorbs all of the animal food I eat, unlike plant matter.

IV. Vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins are similar to oil and do not dissolve in water. They are most abundant in high fat foods and are much better absorbed into your bloodstream when you eat them with fat. The fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E, and K, are stored in the body for long periods of time and generally pose a greater risk for toxicity than water-soluble vitamins when consumed in excess.
Vitamin A
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin and an essential nutrient for humans.

Vitamin A occurs as two principal forms in foods:
a) as retinol, found in animal-sourced foods
b) as carotenoids (like beta carotene, lycopene etc.), in plant based foods

Deficiencies of vitamin A is relatively common worldwide and is linked to bad eyesight and more importantly from a looksmaxxing perspective, harmful effect to skin (increased susceptibility to skin infection and inflammation). In fact according to the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD), retinol (retinoid), a topical form of vitamin A, can help treat and prevent inflammatory acne lesions. The organization recommends using topical retinoids to treat several types of acne. Retinol may help improve acne by: decreasing inflammation.​

You can use this useful effect of it with tretinoin but as my personal anecdotal observations suggest, simply eating liver regularly also helps (as it has by far the most retinol in it out of any food).

On the other side, hypervitaminosis A, the oversdosing of retinol can do occur, since it's a fat-soluble vitamin we are talking about. You should take into account liver's high retinol content and consume it responsibly.

Carotenosis, more commonly known as the yellowish-warm discoloration of the skin due to the consumption of high amounts of carotenoids (beta carotene & lycopene) on the other hand is harmless. Consumption of greater than 30 mg/day for a prolonged period has been confirmed as leading to carotenemia. Carotenodermia is reversible upon cessation of excessive intake. You can read more on carotenoids in my skincare thread:​
https://looksmax.org/threads/guide-on-achieving-model-tier-skin.430153/

The reccomended daily amount of vitamin A is around 900μg RAE (retinol activity equivalent), with the tolerable upper limit being 3 000μg RAE / day. IU = International unit. 1 IU ~= 0.3μg of retinol

Animal food source
IU of retinol per 100g
Duck liver
40 000 (1350% of RDA)​
Turkey liver
27 000​
Pork liver
21 650​
Beef liver
16 900​
Chicken liver
11 000​

The best sources of beta carotene aside from supplements:
Plant food source
mg of ß-carotene per 100g
Sweet potato
9.4​
Carrots
9.2​
Pumpkin
6.9​

And the best sources of lycopene aside from supplements:
Plant food source
mg of lycopene per 100g
Sun-dried tomatoes
46​
Ketchup
10-18​
Tomato sauce
16​
Tomato paste
7.5​
Raw tomatoes
2.6​
https://looksmax.org/threads/ketchup-is-a-very-good-source-of-lycopene.484342/
Vitamin D
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and many other biological effects. In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). The former is only found in food derived from animals.

The major natural source of the vitamin is synthesis of cholecalciferol in the lower layers of epidermis of the skin through a chemical reaction that is dependent on sun exposure (specifically UVB radiation). Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol can be ingested from the diet and supplements. Only a few foods, such as the flesh of fatty fish, naturally contain significant amounts of vitamin D.

Vitamin D from the diet, or from skin synthesis, is biologically inactive. It is activated by two protein enzyme hydroxylation steps, the first in the liver and the second in the kidneys. As vitamin D can be synthesized in adequate amounts by most mammals if exposed to sufficient sunlight. The ability to synthetize vitamin D using sunlight is greatly hindered by melanin in the skin, which means the darker your skin is, the more dietary cholecalciferol you need.

An estimated one billion people worldwide are either vitamin D insufficient or deficient. Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in the European population. A diet with insufficient vitamin D in conjunction with inadequate sun exposure causes vitamin D deficiency, which makes you depressed, worsens calciumabsorption and testosterone production.

The recommended daily amount is around 10-15μg (400-600 IU).

The best source of vitamin D3 is by far fatty sea fish.
Animal food source
μg of vitamin D3 per 100g
Mackerel
16 (300% of RDA)​
Salmon
14​
Tuna
5.7​
Sardines
5​
Herring
4​
Eggs
1.5​

Cod liver and it's oil are ridiculously good sources of it. Just a table spoon of the latter contains more than twice of RDA.
Vitamin E
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that protects tissues while fat is burned for energy. Severe deficiency is rare, but low intakes of vitamin E have been linked to high oxidative stress and tissue damage. Vitamin E is unique in that it is fat soluble and literally weaves itself into the fatty outer layer of the cell (the cell membrane) to stand guard and neutralize damaging compounds.

The benefits of vitamin E extend beyond its antioxidant capabilities. It also disrupts platelet aggregation, meaning it has a slightly blood thinning effect. In this capacity it may have a positive impact on cardiovascular health – allowing blood to flow freely through blood vessels. This same effect is observed in other heart healthy nutrients like omega 3 fatty acids.​

The recommended daily intake of vitamin E is 15mg. Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin. So in nature, the higher concentrations will be in foods with fat, the best source being fatty fish.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin E per 100g
Fish roe
7​
Abalone
4​
Trout
2.8​
Sardines
2​
Mackerel
1.5​
Salmon
1.1​
Eggs
1​
Muscle meat in general
0.3​

The Daily Value (DV) is a reference amount set for adults to consume of a particular nutrient each day. The DV for vitamin E is set at 15 mg of alpha-tocopherol, the only form of vitamin E maintained in our blood plasma (*). Although this is the working number set for vitamin E in the US, the FNB acknowledges that more research is needed to accurately characterize the amount of vitamin E required for optimal human health.

Now, if you do a simple google search for food sources of vitamin E, you’ll come across many vegetable oils listed. But what you’ll want to keep in mind is that vegetable oils are typically high in inflammatory omega 6 fats and they are typically processed in a way that produces free radicals (highly manufactured, high heat and chemical laden processes). So how much sense does it make to get your anti-inflammatory and antioxidant nutrients if they come bathed in free radicals.Exactly, not much.​

In another words, vitamin E is another case where the requirement is likely lower if you abstain from plant food.
Vitamin K
Vitamin K refers to structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamers. The human body requires vitamin K for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.

Vitamin K1 is made by plants, and is found in highest amounts in green leafy vegetables, because it is directly involved in photosynthesis. It is active as a vitamin in animals and performs the classic functions of vitamin K, including its activity in the production of blood-clotting proteins. Animals may also convert it to vitamin K2, variant MK-4. Bacteria in the gut flora can also convert K1 (phylloquinone) into MK-4. All forms of K2 other than MK-4 can only be produced by bacteria, which use these during anaerobic respiration. Vitamin K3 (menadione), a synthetic form of vitamin K, was used to treat vitamin K deficiency, but because it interferes with the function of glutathione, it is no longer used this way in human nutrition.​

The adequate daily amount for vitamin K (US Academy of Medicine does not distuingish between vitamin K1 & K2) is set at 120μg. No sufficient data exists for tolerable upper limit.

Phylloquinone (K1) has been determined to have the bioavaibility of only 5-10% when consumed from plant based foods (thereduced bioavailability of plant-sourced vitamin K appears to be due to a tight binding of phylloquinone to the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts). K2 is superior to K1, so it's kinda redundant, but you can still get it from animal sources:​

Animal food source
μg of vitamin K1 per 100g
Egg yolk
7​
Butter
2​
Mackerel
1​
Beef chuck
0.6​

Some K2 sources:

Animal food source
μg of vitamin K2 per 100g
Cheese
300-500​
Goose liver
370​
Beef liver
106​
Milk
38​
Turkey sausage
37​
Chicken meat
36​
Bacon
35​

Water-soluble vitamins
Water-soluble vitamins aren’t long-term like fat-soluble vitamins. They don’t get stored in your body. They enter your bloodstream, and anything your body doesn’t need is eliminated through your urine. ‌Since water-soluble vitamins don’t last long in your body, they need to be replenished frequently.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Thiamine, also known as thiamin and vitamin B1, is a vitamin, an essential micronutrient, which cannot be made in the body.

The RDA for vitamin B1 is 1.2 mg for adult males.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B1 per 100g
Pork chops
0.7 (56% of RDA)​
Pork kidney
0.35​
Salmon
0.3​
Pork liver
0.3​
Mussels
0.3​
Chicken heart
0.15​
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
As a water-soluble vitamin, any riboflavin consumed in excess of nutritional requirements is not stored; it is either not absorbed or is absorbed and quickly excreted in urine, causing the urine to have a bright yellow tint. Natural sources of riboflavin include meat, fish and fowl, eggs, dairy products.

The RDA for vitamin B2 for adult males is 1.3mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B2 per 100g
Beef liver
3.4 (260% of RDA)​
Chicken liver
2.3​
Whey protein powder
2​
Eggs
0.4​
Cheese
0.4​
Turkey meat
0.2-0.4​
Beef meat
0.2​
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient. It can be manufactured by plants and animals from the amino acid tryptophan. Niacin is obtained in the diet from a variety of whole and processed foods, with highest contents in fortified packaged foods, meat, poultry, red fish such as tuna and salmon.​

The daily adequate intake level of vitamin B3 for adult males is 1.6mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B3 per 100g
Tuna
5-22​
Bacon
10​
Salmon
10​
Turkey
7-12​
Chicken
7-12​
Beef
4-8​
Pork
4-8​
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 is a water-soluble B vitamin and therefore an essential nutrient. All animals require pantothenic acid in order to synthesize coenzyme A (CoA) – essential for fatty acid metabolism – as well as to, in general, synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.

The adequate daily intake level for vitamin B5 is 5mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B5 per 100g
Beef liver7.2
Pork liver6.65
Chicken liver6.2
Pork heart2.5
Salmon1.1
Mackerel0.85
Beef meat0.65
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
The term refers to a group of six chemically similar compounds, i.e., "vitamers", which can be interconverted in biological systems. Its active form, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, serves as a coenzyme in more than 140 enzyme reactions in amino acid, glucose, and lipid metabolism.

The daily needed amount of vitamin B6 is around 1.7mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B6 per 100g
Whey protein concentrate
1.2​
Beef liver
1​
Tuna
1​
Beef meat
1​
Salmon
1​
Chicken meat
0.7​
Pork meat
0.6​
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
Biotin, also called vitamin B7, is one of the B vitamins. It is involved in a wide range of metabolic processes, both in humans and in other organisms, primarily related to the utilization of fats, carbohydrates, and amino acids.

Adequate daily intake for vitamin B7 is 30μg.

Animal food source
μg of vitamin B7 per 100g
Chicken liver
187​
Beef liver
42​
Eggs
21​
Salmon
6​
Pork chop
4.5​
Cheese
1.4​
Vitamin B9 (Folic acid)
Folate, also known as vitamin B9 and folacin, is one of the B vitamins. Manufactured folic acid, which is converted into folate by the body, is used as a dietary supplement and in food fortification as it is more stable during processing and storage. Folate is required for the body to make DNA and RNA and metabolise amino acids necessary for cell division. As humans cannot make folate, it is required in the diet, making it an essential nutrient. It occurs naturally in many foods.

The recommended adult daily intake of folate is 400 micrograms.
Animal food source
μg of folate per 100g
Chicken liver
578​
Calf liver
330​
Cheese
20-60​
Eggs
45​
Salmon
35​
Chicken meat
12​
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin involved in metabolism. It is one of eight B vitamins. It is required by animals, which use it as a cofactor in DNA synthesis, in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. It is important in the normal functioning of the nervous system via its role in the synthesis of myelin, and in the circulatory system in the maturation of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Plants do not need cobalamin and carry out the reactions with enzymes that are not dependent on it.

Vitamin B12 is the most chemically complex of all vitamins, and for humans, the only vitamin that must be sourced from animal-derived foods or supplements. Only some archaea and bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12. Most people in developed countries get enough B12 from the consumption of meat or foods with animal sources, it's only vegans who are sabotaging themselves as usual.

The required daily amount of vitamin B12 is around 2.5μg for adults.

Animals store vitamin B12 from their diets in their livers and muscles and some pass the vitamin into their eggs and milk. Meat, liver, eggs and milk are therefore sources of the vitamin for other animals, including humans. For humans, the bioavailability from eggs is less than 9%, compared to 40% to 60% from fish, fowl and meat. Insects are a source of B12 for animals (including other insects and humans). Animal-derived food sources with a high concentration of vitamin B12 include liver and other organ meats from lamb, veal, beef, and turkey; shellfish and crab meat.​
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue, the formation of collagen, and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters. It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function. It also functions as an antioxidant. Most animals are able to synthesize their own vitamin C. However, apes (including humans) and monkeys (but not all primates), most bats, some rodents, and certain other animals must acquire it from dietary sources.
Vitamin C needs a special mention if we are talking about the carnivore diet. The number 1 thing someone will say if you mention you only eat animal based food is but where do you get vitamin C from? You will get scurvy! Everyone knows the famous anecdote about British sailors getting scurvy on their long sea journeys and how they supposedly solved it by bringing citrus fruit with them. But the anecdote completely misses the real underlying problem, namely that ascorbic acid and glucose (sugar) are so similar, that they in fact compete for absorption in the human body:

https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/130/1/63/4686080

While many animals can use glucose to synthesize Vitamin C, humans and other primates such as apes and monkeys lost this capacity during the evolution process. Lack of L-gluconolactone oxidase enzyme in our bodies hinders us from synthesizing Vitamin C out of glucose.

But our bodies have devised ways to cope with this by creating a system that takes out the oxidized form of Vitamin C and transporting it in antioxidant form. Unlike animals that make their own Vitamin C, humans need low amounts of Vitamin C.

Researchers also found that glucose and Vitamin C have nearly identical molecular structure and use the same pathways for absorption into the bloodstream. As such, they compete with each other for uptake and glucose wins preferentially. So basically, when you consume a high-sugar, high carb meal, your body absorbs the glucose over Vitamin C.

The real reason why British sailors got scurvy is not the lack of vitamin C they consumed, it's the unmentioned fact that they ate a shitload of carb loaded biscuits, which in turn completely reduced their possible vitamin C absorption ability, skyrocketing the need for vitamin C, which they couldn't get until they decided to bring vitamin C rich fruits with them.

Eating fruits to get vitamin C is very retarded if you think about it. They might have high ascorbic acid content, but their high sugar content completely hinders it's absorption. That’s why drinking orange juice to increase Vitamin C is counterintuitive. It may contain a lot of Vitamin C, but you don’t get any of it because of the high sugar content.

TL;DR The more carbohydrates (glucose) you consume, the higher your vitamin C need is. If you follow a lowcarb diet, your ascorbic acid needs drops significantly, close to zero on a carnivore diet. No, you won't get scurvy if you only eat animal products.
Another important factor to note is that vitamin C's main function in the body at the end of the day is collagen production, which again, is already maxed out on a carnivore diet, since meat has hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine abundantly, the two building blocks of collagen. If you are looking for good skin, eating meat soup with bone marrow will do hundred times more for that than consuming muh fruits :feelsuhh:

If you’re worried about the antioxidant properties of Vitamin C, don’t be. Your body produces glutathione and uric acid, which are natural antioxidants. These substances are much more potent and take over many of Vitamin C’s roles in the body.​

Meat after all does contain vitamin C but keep in mind that ascorbic acid is very heat sensitive, overcooking your meat will destroy most of it, but again, it's not a problem.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin C per 100g
Beef spleen
45​
Pork liver
25​
Clams
20​
Chicken liver
18​
Pork kidney
13.3​
Trout
3.5​
Chicken heart
3.2​
Beef liver
1.3​

V. Minerals
Quantity elements
The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and magnesium. Calcium makes up around 1kg of adult body weight, with 99% of it contained in bones and teeth. Phosphorus makes up another 1%. These minerals together with the most abundant elements (oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen) make up 99.85% of the body.
Calcium (Ca)
Calcium is important for bone health, muscle contractions and blood clotting.

The RDA is set at 1g of calcium per day but a lot of people think this is too high. This is because calcium needs vitamin D and vitamin K2 to be absorbed into the body, and most modern diets are highly lacking in both of these.

Animal food source
mg of calcium per 100g
Cheese
750 - 1 400​
Canned small fish (like sardines, spruts) that has edible little bones in it
400​
Milk
120​
Quark
80​

The best source of calcium is dairy by far. Deficiency of it is highly correlated with lactose intolerance:
View attachment 1677538 View attachment 1677540

Dairy is so good in so many regards that if you happen to be lactose intolerant, I would highly suggest looking into lactose-free dairy products or getting lactase enzyme pills. With that said, dairy-free carnivore sources of calcium include small canned fish with little edible bones and you can make your own calcium powder by drying out and grinding eggshells.​
Magnesium (Mg)
Magnesium helps to maintain normal nerve function and muscle function, it supports your immune system and regulates your heartbeat. Sign of a magnesium deficiency include muscle cramps, muscle twitching, heart palpitations, fatigue, constipation. Overall it's a very important mineral for maximising physical output.

Intracellular magnesium is correlated with intracellular potassium. Increased magnesium lowers calcium and can either prevent hypercalcemia or cause hypocalcemia depending on the initial level. Both low and high protein intake conditions inhibit magnesium absorption, as does the amount of phosphate, phytate, and fat in the gut. Unabsorbed dietary magnesium is excreted in feces; absorbed magnesium is excreted in urine and sweat. The ideal ratio of calcium and magnesium is around 2:1.

Most people need around 400mg of magnesium a day, but this amount can go substantially higher if you are physically active. More is always better than not enough.​

Animal food source
mg of magnesium per 100g
Oyster
150​
Crab
110​
Mackerel
75​
Anchovies
45​
Tuna
35​
Muscle meat in general
25​
Cheese
25​
Liver
20​

As you can see seafood is by far the best source of magnesium in the animal kingdom, but they still don't contain a lot. Some amount do adds up but you should get the rest from water. Magnesium-rich water used to be the norm in nature, where our ancestors could drink water which has gone through layers of limestone.
IMG_1370_result.jpg

This is no longer a privilege for most of us, but the second best thing is drinking mineral water or by simply adding some more magnesium with supplements. It's very location dependant, but in many places tap water also contains a considerable amount of magnesium (usually near limestone mountains , who would have thought).​
Phosphorus (P)
RDA is around 700mg. The ideal calcium to phosphorus ratio is somewhere between 1:1 and 2:1.

Animal food source
mg of phosphorus per 100g
Sardines
480​
Cheese
350​
Liver
300​
Beef meat
200​
Pork meat
160​
Milk
90​

While phosphorus is naturally present in many foods, some processed foods also contain large amounts from additives. Phosphate additives are nearly 100% absorbable, and can contribute anywhere from 300 to 1,000 mg of additional phosphorus per day. Processed foods and beverages that often contain added phosphates include processed meats (beef, lamb, pork and chicken products are often marinated or injected with phosphate additives to keep the meat tender and juicy).​
Potassium (K)
Potassium is an essential nutrient that regulates fluid balance in cells and blood pressure. Symptoms of deficiency include increased blood pressure, kidney stones, constipation, muscle weakness, and irregular heartbeat.​

The daily recommended intake of potassium is at least 2,600 – 3,400 mg for an adult, though the USDA recommends 4,700 mg.

Animal food source
mg of potassium per 100g
Sardines
400​
Beef meat
375​
Salmon
370​
Chicken meat
300​
Liver
300​
Pork heart
300​
Milk
140​
Chicken eggs
140​
Cheese
140​

A cup of bone broth contains around 500mg of potassium, on top of this you can supplement more if needed with high-potassium salt subsitutes (these products replace a portion of sodium chloride found in table salt with potassium chloride).
Sodium (Na)
Sodium chloride (table salt) is the principal source of sodium. The U.S. Institute of Medicine set its tolerable upper intake level for sodium at 2.3 grams per day, but the average person consumes much more than that. Excess sodium consumption is linked with high blood pleasure in some individual and may cause bloat.

The carnivore diet and physical exercise (sweat) does increase sodium need, up to 5g / day.
Trace elements
The remaining ~18 ultratrace minerals comprise just 0.15% of the body, or about one hundred grams in total for the average person.
Chlorine (Cl)
The chloride anion is an essential nutrient for metabolism. Chlorine is needed for the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and in cellular pump functions. The main dietary source is table salt (sodium chloride).
Cobalt (Co)
In humans, consumption of cobalt-containing vitamin B12 meets all needs for cobalt.
Copper (Cu)
Copper is an essential trace element that is vital to the health of all living things. Copper is incorporated into a variety of proteins and metalloenzymes which perform essential metabolic functions; the micronutrient is necessary for the proper growth, development, and maintenance of bone, connective tissue, brain, heart, and many other body organs. Similarly to some other divalent ions, copper strongly interacts with lipid membranes and is involved in the formation of red blood cells, the absorption and utilization of iron, the metabolism of cholesterol and glucose, and the synthesis and release of life-sustaining proteins and enzymes. These enzymes in turn produce cellular energy and regulate nerve transmission, blood clotting, and oxygen transport.​

Copper absorption is hindered by an excess of iron and zinc intake.

The daily recommended amount of copper is around 1mg, with the tolerable upper intake level being at 5mg.

The best animal sources of copper are seafood and organ meat (especially liver):

Animal food source
mg of copper per 100g
Beef liver
9.8 (1 000% of RDA)​
Oysters
4.4​
Lobster
2​
Pork liver
0.7​
Crab
0.7​
Chicken liver
0.5​
Chicken heart
0.35​
Salmon
0.3​
Muscle meat in general
~ 0.08 (10% of RDA)​
Iodine (I)
Iodine is an essential element for life and, at atomic number Z = 53, is the heaviest element commonly needed by living organisms.

The recommended daily intake of iodine is around 150µg, with the tolerable upper intake level being at 1 100µg.
(The thyroid gland needs no more than 70 μg/day to synthesise the requisite daily amounts of T4 and T3. The higher recommended daily allowance levels of iodine seem necessary for optimal function of a number of body systems)

You shouldn't really worry about consuming enough iodine, since most people season their food with iodised salt (half a table spoon has the RDA of iodine). That said, seafood, eggs and dairy are good sources of it:

Animal food source
µg of iodine per 100g
Tuna
60 (40% of RDA)​
Cheese
40​
Milk
40​
Shrimp
40​
Chicken eggs
35​
Iron (Fe)
Iron is an essential bioelement for most forms of life, from bacteria to mammals. Its importance lies in its ability to mediate electron transfer. In the ferrous state (Fe2+), iron acts as an electron donor, while in the ferric state (Fe3+) it acts as an acceptor. Thus, iron plays a vital role in the catalysis of enzymatic reactions that involve electron transfer (reduction and oxidation, redox).

Heme vs non heme iron
View attachment 1677533
Heme iron is clearly superior to non-heme and is only found in animal sources.
View attachment 1677534

Iron deficiency is by far the most common mineral deficiency, because
a) in developing countries people can only afford shitty plant food with non-heme iron
b) in developed countries mentally ill vegans and vegetarians willfully shoot themselves in the foot :soy:

What little bad quality iron plants have is further worsened by the presence of antinutrients such as oxalates in leafy greens, which completely hinders it's absorption.

The recommended daily amount of iron is around 18 mg, more for women due to menstruation's blood loss. Heme iron is stupidly abundant in animal foods, if you are following an animal based diet it's not a matter of getting in enough, it's actually not consuming too much iron is the one you should worry about.​

Animal food source
mg of heme iron per 100g
Clam
28 (155% of RDA)​
Pork liver
18​
Lamb kidney
12​
Oyster
12​
Mussel
6.7​
Beef heart
6.4​
Muscle meat in general
2.5 (20% of RDA)​

Don't drink blood! I've seen numerous carnivore guys looking for places to buy blood from, but drinking it is a bad idea as it has too much iron in it.
Manganese (Mn)
Manganese deficiency in humans results in a number of medical problems. Relatively high dietary intake of other minerals such as iron, magnesium, and calcium may inhibit the proper intake of manganese (as they complete with it for absorption). A deficiency of manganese causes skeletal deformation in animals and inhibits the production of collagen. Humans absorb only about 1% to 5% of dietary manganese.​

The daily recommended amount of mangenese is around 2mg but it's very shady, pointed out well by this redditor:
View attachment 1677541

As with other nutrients, like vitamin C, adequate manganese intake in reality is probably much lower than what the RDA may suggest. Animal based foods may seem to be lacking in manganese but I'm telling you that's not a coincidence.

Animal food source
mg of manganese per 100g
Grass-fed bison
11.5​
Mussels
6​
Beef tripe
6​
Bass (fish)
1.15​
Trout
1.1​
Oysters
1​
Clams
0.9​
Molybdenium (Mo)
The recommended daily amount of molybdenium is at least 45μg, with the upper tolerable intake level set at 2 000μg.

Average daily intake varies between 120 and 240 μg/day, which is higher than dietary recommendations. Pork, lamb, and beef liver each have approximately 1.5 parts per million of molybdenum.


Animal food source
of RDA
100g of beef liver
230%​
Cup of yogurt
60%​
Cup of milk
50%​
Selenium (Se)
The RDA of selenium for adults is 55μg.

Animal food source
μg of selenium per 100g
Tuna
100​
Shrimp
60​
Salmon
55​
Sardines
50​
Beef
40​
Pork
40​
Sulfur (S)
Sulfur is the third most abundant mineral in your body. It is present in methionine and cysteine, which are two of the amino acids you use to make proteins. Both of these amino acids are present in your skin, hair, and nails where they help to make these tissues strong and flexible (collagen).

You obtain the sulfur your body needs from animal based proteins as well as other types of compounds such as sulfinates, allicin, and sulfides. Sulfur is also present in thiamin (vitamin B-1) and biotin (vitamin H).

No recommended daily amounts have been proposed for sulfur intake. Meat is a great source of methionine though.
VI. Water
I recommend a daily water intake level of at least 1 liter per 20 kilograms of your bodyweight. Always keep yourself hydrated by drinking many times but not a lot at each occasion. Avoid drinking from plastic bottles and don't worry about the fluoride meme as there are very few places where they put fluoride into drining water.

Mineral water can be a good supplement if you can get it in glass bottles. The ones that have high magnesium content are the most useful.
Good thread man, I read everything but I'm pretty sure that I will forget the 90% the next days.

Altrough, I have a question. Milk, cheese, yogurt, dairy products in general are supposed to lower testosterone, what do you think about that?
 
Prettyboy

Prettyboy

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Which certain animals (including humans) evolved to digest.
The better phrase would be to tolerate, imo. Humans can digest plant matter but it’s far from ideal and leads to several health issues. Just think of gluten and IBS.

What do you mean by "effecitvely lean down?" Carbs are an energy source used for the exertion that will result in hypertrophy.
The body switches to storage mode if it gets carbs in abundance, the opposite of what you’d want to lean down.

How does it "rot in your intestines" if it's quickly shat out?
The whole reason humans consume fiber is to slow down the digestion of carbohydrate containing foods so they don’t spike the blood sugar level too extremely. Metabolism ans digestion runs more smoothly without without fiber

Couldn't agree more. Everytime I eat plants, I shit out the plants in their original form. Plants are indigestable.
Exactly. People shit turds and fart all day and think it’s the norm, it’s ridiciulous. Most of the plant matter that goes into you comes straight out as the body cannot digest it. Just think of corns or sesame seeds, they come out in your shit the exact same you ate them

Animal protein spikes mTOR more than plant protein so from a longevity standpoint reducing animal proteins after you are done growing (like 25+) is something to consider, then later as you become old (65+) increasing it once again to carry more muscle and reduce chance of fatal injuries.
It might be an unpopular opinion of mine, but I do think longevity is severely overrated. It’s in reality a feminime trait, no wonder that the longest living demographic are Asian females and the shortest living are black males. Testosterone on itself shortens lifespan as it weakens the immune system. People living in the so called blue zones, eating mostly plants might live the longest, but ask yourself what you would rather prefer, live to 100 years old but spend the last 40 years of it as a weak skinnyfat decaying organism or live
shorter but as a high T strong person. I would choose the second.

What do you eat to get so much protein every day? I barely manage 250g. And it’s a lot of work to even make that much food.
I get around 3x of my lean bodyweight a day in protein per day (~240 grams). On a usual day to achieve this I eat

- 100g of cheese
- 9 eggs
- 100g of fatty fish
- 2 cups of whole milk
- 500-600g of meat (including organs)
 
LachowskiWannabe

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wow nigga thanks for the science lesson but how will this help me get bitches
 
YouLiveForYourself

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Tbh if the whole forum did what PrettyBoy did it'd solve a lot of our problems. Hard working user who uses his initiative.
I get around 3x of my lean bodyweight a day in protein per day (~240 grams). On a usual day to achieve this I eat

- 100g of cheese
- 9 eggs
- 100g of fatty fish
- 2 cups of whole milk
- 500-600g of meat (including organs)
Is this your full daily diet? How many calories and macronutrients do you get?
 
Prettyboy

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Is this your full daily diet? How many calories and macronutrients do you get?
Yes. The meat section can be anything from chicken thighs to beef liver. I eat a lot of organs to cover my micronutrient needs

My macros are around 240g protein, 200-240g fat and 30-50g of carbs. Around 3 000 -3 200 calories, that means maintenance in my case.
 
Reckless Turtle

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The better phrase would be to tolerate, imo. Humans can digest plant matter but it’s far from ideal and leads to several health issues. Just think of gluten and IBS.
Gluten is easy to avoid. IBS is arguably worse with processed foods and animal products (in my experience).
The body switches to storage mode if it gets carbs in abundance, the opposite of what you’d want to lean down.
Basically all energy (including fatty sources) gets stored without enough physical exertion.
The whole reason humans consume fiber is to slow down the digestion of carbohydrate containing foods so they don’t spike the blood sugar level too extremely.
There isn't a "reason" humans consume fiber. Fiber is just a non-nutritional part of plants that passes through the digestive system.
 
Q

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The better phrase would be to tolerate, imo. Humans can digest plant matter but it’s far from ideal and leads to several health issues. Just think of gluten and IBS.


The body switches to storage mode if it gets carbs in abundance, the opposite of what you’d want to lean down.


The whole reason humans consume fiber is to slow down the digestion of carbohydrate containing foods so they don’t spike the blood sugar level too extremely. Metabolism ans digestion runs more smoothly without without fiber


Exactly. People shit turds and fart all day and think it’s the norm, it’s ridiciulous. Most of the plant matter that goes into you comes straight out as the body cannot digest it. Just think of corns or sesame seeds, they come out in your shit the exact same you ate them


It might be an unpopular opinion of mine, but I do think longevity is severely overrated. It’s in reality a feminime trait, no wonder that the longest living demographic are Asian females and the shortest living are black males. Testosterone on itself shortens lifespan as it weakens the immune system. People living in the so called blue zones, eating mostly plants might live the longest, but ask yourself what you would rather prefer, live to 100 years old but spend the last 40 years of it as a weak skinnyfat decaying organism or live
shorter but as a high T strong person. I would choose the second.


I get around 3x of my lean bodyweight a day in protein per day (~240 grams). On a usual day to achieve this I eat

- 100g of cheese
- 9 eggs
- 100g of fatty fish
- 2 cups of whole milk
- 500-600g of meat (including organs)
So your the total amount of protein you consume per day is 240g. Are you lean bulking with ~3000 calories? Would you recommend liver for high protein food?
 
Last edited:
KDA Player

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Good thread ngl, could be BoB tier
 
StuffedFrog

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I. Introduction
This guide is about all the essential nutrients and how to get all of them from animal food sources, as part of a carnivore diet or otherwise.

Overview:
View attachment 1677526
View attachment 1677527

II. Protein
Proteins are large biomolecules and macromolecules that comprise one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells and organisms, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific 3D structure that determines its activity. Protein as a macronutrient has roughly the same energy content as carbohydrates, namely ~4 kcal (17 kJ) / g.

The required amount of protein is the topic of an age old debate. For non active persons the RDA recommends around 1 gram for each bodyweight kilogram of protein per day, but that's jackshit. You'll gona look like a muscle less skinnyfat faggot with that amount. There are another scientific papers that conclude there's no point consuming more than 1.5 g / bwkg as the excess is not absorbed. Personally from half a decade of personal experiments, my anecdotal opinion is in line with the broader carnivore community. I recommend 2-3 g of protein a day for each lean (fatless) bodyweight kilogram. The higher your protein consumption, the leaner you can be sustainably without muscle wastage.​

Amino acids
The most important aspect and defining characteristic of protein from a nutritional standpoint is its amino acid composition. Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. During human digestion, proteins are broken down in the stomach to smaller polypeptide chains via hydrochloric acid and protease actions. This is crucial for the absorption of the essential amino acids that cannot be biosynthesized by the body. There are 21 amino acids common to all life forms, of which nine humans cannot synthetize thus need to be consumed with food, six other amino acids are conditionnaly essential, meaning their synthesis can be limited under certain pathophysiological conditions and last but not least another six amino acids are non-essential, meaning the human body is able to synthetize them.
Essential amino acids (EAA)
There are nine essential amino acids which humans must obtain from their diet in order to prevent protein–energy malnutrition and resulting death. They are:
  • Phenylalanine
  • Valine
  • Threonine
  • Tryptophan
  • Methionine
  • Leucine
  • Isoleucine
  • Lysine
  • Histidine
Conditionally essential amino acids
Six other amino acids are considered conditionally essential in the human diet, meaning their synthesis can be limited under special pathophysiological conditions. They are:
  • Arginine
  • Cysteine
  • Glutamine
  • Glycine
  • Proline
  • Tyrosine
Non-essential amino acids
Six amino acids are non-essential (dispensable) in humans, meaning they can be synthesized in sufficient quantities in the body. They are:
  • Alanine
  • Aspartic acid
  • Asparagine
  • Glutamic acid
  • Serine
  • Selenocysteine
  • Pyrrolysine

Animal vs plant based protein
Biological value (BV)
Biological value (BV) is a measure of the proportion of absorbed protein from a food which becomes incorporated into the proteins of the organism's body. It captures how readily the digested protein can be used in protein synthesis in the cells of the organism. Proteins are the major source of nitrogen in food. BV assumes protein is the only source of nitrogen and measures the amount of nitrogen ingested in relation to the amount which is subsequently excreted. The remainder must have been incorporated into the proteins of the organisms body. A ratio of nitrogen incorporated into the body over nitrogen absorbed gives a measure of protein "usability" – the BV.

Some examples: (100 would mean 100% of the nitrogen is incorporated)
Food
Biological value
Whey protein
96​
Whole soy bean
96​
Human milk
95​
Chicken egg
94​
Beef
92​
Cow milk
90​
Cheese
84​
Rice
83​
Fish
76​
Bean
65​
Whole wheat
64​
White flour
41​


Complete vs non-complete protein sources
As you can see in the table above, animal protein sources tend to have higher biological values, than plant ones, this is due to animal based food being a complete protein source (they contain the nine essential amino acids in ideal ratios) and plants, aside from soy and few others being incomplete protein sources (they don't contain the nine essential amino acids in ideal ratios).

Some animal (complete) protein sources
grams of protein per 100g
Cheeses
15-40​
Muscle meat, including fish
15-25​
Quark, cottage cheese
10-15​
Eggs
13​
Milk
3​

Complementary protein
Aside from soy, buckwheat and hempseeds, plants lack one or more essential amino acids.
  • In legumes' and vegetables case is usually methionine
  • Grains lack lysine and threonine
  • Nuts and seeds lack lysine
  • Corn lacks tryptophan and lysine.
To combat this, humanity have been combining certain plants with others that complement each other's amino acids profile. Like grains with legumes. Just think of food like Mexican burritos, Levantine tahini with hummus and pita, etc.
The inherent problems of plant protein sources
Despite complementing, plants are still should be a last resort (in case of famine) to intake protein, due to:

Antinutrients
Not a single living organism wants to be destroyed. Plants might not fight back with physical force unlike animals due to their stationary nature but they do harm those who eat them, with myriads of purpose produced chemicals called antinutrients. I do plan to make a comprehensive thread about plants' antinutrients, but for here's @Ada Mustang 's guide on them from BOTB:​
https://looksmax.org/threads/anti-nutrients-megathread-plants-are-dangerous.384992/

Carbohydrate content
Even if we disregard the abundance of harmful antinutrients found in plant protein sources, there's still one more critical flaw that cannot be ignored. Plants rich in protein more often than not are also filled to the brim with carbohydrates, at least that is certainly the case for legumes and grains (e.g. for every 10g of protein from wheat, you consume 80g of carbs). More in the IV. Carbohydrates section about why excessive carbohydrates, especially starches are horrible for you.
You cannot effecitvely lean down eating plant protein sources, since their high carbohydrate content keeps your blood sugar levels high. Another way to look at it is protein per calorie. You can consume as much protein as possible with the least amount of calories from animal sources, since e.g. lean meat is nothing but protein and water.
III. Lipids
Fats should be your main energy source. Either from your bodyfat or dietary sources, they provide more than double the amount of energy than carbs and proteins at 9.3 kcal (39 kJ) / g. My recommendation is to consume 2-3x the amount of your bodyweight in grams of fat, depending on your activity level, in combination with 2-3x protein and 30-50 grams of simple carbohydrates.​

Ketosis
Ketosis is a metabolic state characterized by elevated levels of ketone bodies in the blood or urine. Physiological ketosis is a normal response to low glucose availability, such as low-carbohydrate diets or fasting, that provides an additional energy source for the brain in the form of ketones. In physiological ketosis, ketones in the blood are elevated above baseline levels, but the body's acid–base homeostasis is maintained.

There may be side effects when changing over from glucose metabolism to fat metabolism. These may include headache, fatigue, dizziness, insomnia, difficulty in exercise tolerance, constipation, and nausea, especially in the first days and weeks after starting a ketogenic diet. Breath may develop a sweet, fruity flavor via production of acetone that is exhaled because of its high volatility. This is known as the adaptation period and it may last for weeks, depending on yoour level of carbohydrate intake beforehand.​

I don't recommend being in ketosis all the time. Preferably before and after exercise you should consume some simple carbs, to elevate your blood sugar level and stimulate an insulin response.

Saturated fatty acids
Although saturated fat has been demonized for decades by big pharma, it's an essential part of the diet. It should be your main energy source. It is essential for healthy testosterone levels. Feel free to consume it in any amounts, according to your needs based on your activity level.

Most animal fat is saturated. If the food is solid in room temperature, it is mostly made up of saturated fat.
View attachment 1677532
View attachment 1677529
View attachment 1677530
You should always cook your meal with either butter or animal fat (pork, goose, beef lard etc.). Never use vegetable oils for cooking, they are poison

Cholesterol
Another one that has been demonized for decades so that statine producing pharma companies and margarine producers with their lies can make profit from your harm.

Cholesterol is absolutely essential for androgen hormone production
View attachment 1677528
and although our body can synthetize some amount, it's good to consume as much as you can. It can only be found in animal based foods.

The best sources of cholesterol are eggs, red meat, organs, seafood and dairy, especially cheese. Always eat the opposite (((they))) tell you. Make no mistake, the foods they demonize are the most essential ones to be healthy and strong both in the body and mind.​

Monounsaturated fatty acids
Chemically speaking, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are fat molecules with one unsaturated double carbon bond. These fats are usually liquid when at room temperature and turn solid when chilled. They are found in many foods, also in meats among with other fats, not much more to say, you eat them either way.​

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)
Omega-3
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called Omega-3 oils, ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) characterized by the presence of a double bond, three atoms away from the terminal methyl group in their chemical structure. They are widely distributed in nature, being important constituents of animal lipid metabolism, and they play an important role in the human diet and in human physiology. The three types of omega−3 fatty acids involved in human physiology are α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

ALA can be found in plants, while DHA and EPA are found in algae and fish. Marine algae and phytoplankton are primary sources of omega−3 fatty acids. DHA and EPA accumulate in fish that eat these algae.

Mammals are unable to synthesize the essential omega−3 fatty acid ALA and can only obtain it through diet. However, they can use ALA, when available, to form EPA and DHA, by creating additional double bonds along its carbon chain (desaturation) and extending it (elongation). Namely, ALA (18 carbons and 3 double bonds) is used to make EPA (20 carbons and 5 double bonds), which is then used to make DHA (22 carbons and 6 double bonds). The ability to make the longer-chain omega−3 fatty acids from ALA may be impaired in aging. In foods exposed to air, unsaturated fatty acids are vulnerable to oxidation and rancidity.

The adequate daily intake level of ALA is set at 1.6 grams for adult men, but more might be better.

Animal food source
grams of Omega-3 per 100 g
Icelandic mackerel
5-6​
Herring
1.5-2​
Sardines
1-2​
Salmon
1-2​
Tuna
0.5-1​
Cod
0.15-0.25​
Omega-6
Despite some people demonizing them, omega-6 fatty acids are essential nutrients that the body cannot otherwise get, but they do cause inflamation if consumed in excess amounts.

Omega-6 is widely found in the meat of land animals. The meat of ruminants like beef contains less (especially if it's grass fed isntead of grain), while others like pork and chicken more of omega-6.

The omega 3:6 ratio
Despite what Ray Peaters claim, PUFAs aren't the ones that will kill you. They are essential nutrients, but two rules must be followed:

1.) Don't consume too much omega-6
2.) Keep the ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 consumed between 1:2 and 1:4.

The second rule is crucial and that's where the supposed danger of PUFAs come from. Excess omega-6 leads to inflammation and the average Westerner's omega-3/6 ratio stands at 1:15 or even higher (for some Americans it might even be 1:40). Eat enough omega-3 to compensate for the 6 and you will be fine.

III. Carbohydrates
Despite 99% of the population running on glucose, carbohydrates are in fact a non-essential macronutrient. In absence of them the body switches from glucolysis to ketosis, in another words using body & dietary fat for energy to keep running. The brain do needs glucose to function but glucose can be still made by the body without dietary carb intake through the demand-driven metabolic pathway of gluconeogenesis, which can convert proteins and lipids into glucose.​
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gluconeogenesis

With that said, I certainly don't recommend totally abstaining from carbohydrates as being in a constant state of ketosis is stressful for the body and ultimately catabolic over the long term (due to no blood sugar levels spiking - insulin is an anabolic hormone but it's good to use it moderation). Again, this is solely my anecdotal observation from multiple years of trial and error. I recommend a daily carbohydrate intake of around 30-50 grams (could be less but not more). This amount has proven to be the sweet spot for me. With it I am in anabolic state yet the amount is far too little to rollercoaster ride my blood sugar level, this way I can stay around at 10% body fat year around without limiting my calories. This is something guys running off of glucolysis only could dream of.

Hoping to lean down while being in glucolysis by restricting caloric intake and / or fasting is retarded. The body always responds to restricting with accumulation as it think you are amidst a famine. Burning fat is not it's trivial choice, it will burn anything from muscle mass to collagen. Carbohydrates hinder fat loss since the body cannot burn fat while constantly being in a state of high blood sugar levels. By abstaining from carbs, your body will naturally turn to your bodyfat deposits to energy, preserving your hard gained muscles in the process.

The 30-50 grams of daily carbs should all be simple carbs (sugars) and should come from dairy in the form of lactose (milk sugar). 2-3 cups of whole milk should do the trick.

Never ever consume starches, they are horrible nutrients that will only bloat you.
Fiber
Although the mainstream fitness advice is to consume enough both water soluble and non soluble fiber to avoid constipation, this couldn't be further from the truth. It does slow down the digestion of foods, which comes handy if you eat carb heavy dishes, since the elongated absorption also means a more gentler glycemic load.

Their usefullness ends here, if you otherwise don't consume carbs, there's no point of intaking ANY fiber as fiber is ultimately undigestable plant matter that rots in your intestines.

I didn't consume fiber aside from a few times in the last 3-4 years and I'm just fine. No constipation and I barely shit because my body absorbs all of the animal food I eat, unlike plant matter.

IV. Vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins are similar to oil and do not dissolve in water. They are most abundant in high fat foods and are much better absorbed into your bloodstream when you eat them with fat. The fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E, and K, are stored in the body for long periods of time and generally pose a greater risk for toxicity than water-soluble vitamins when consumed in excess.
Vitamin A
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin and an essential nutrient for humans.

Vitamin A occurs as two principal forms in foods:
a) as retinol, found in animal-sourced foods
b) as carotenoids (like beta carotene, lycopene etc.), in plant based foods

Deficiencies of vitamin A is relatively common worldwide and is linked to bad eyesight and more importantly from a looksmaxxing perspective, harmful effect to skin (increased susceptibility to skin infection and inflammation). In fact according to the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD), retinol (retinoid), a topical form of vitamin A, can help treat and prevent inflammatory acne lesions. The organization recommends using topical retinoids to treat several types of acne. Retinol may help improve acne by: decreasing inflammation.​

You can use this useful effect of it with tretinoin but as my personal anecdotal observations suggest, simply eating liver regularly also helps (as it has by far the most retinol in it out of any food).

On the other side, hypervitaminosis A, the oversdosing of retinol can do occur, since it's a fat-soluble vitamin we are talking about. You should take into account liver's high retinol content and consume it responsibly.

Carotenosis, more commonly known as the yellowish-warm discoloration of the skin due to the consumption of high amounts of carotenoids (beta carotene & lycopene) on the other hand is harmless. Consumption of greater than 30 mg/day for a prolonged period has been confirmed as leading to carotenemia. Carotenodermia is reversible upon cessation of excessive intake. You can read more on carotenoids in my skincare thread:​
https://looksmax.org/threads/guide-on-achieving-model-tier-skin.430153/

The reccomended daily amount of vitamin A is around 900μg RAE (retinol activity equivalent), with the tolerable upper limit being 3 000μg RAE / day. IU = International unit. 1 IU ~= 0.3μg of retinol

Animal food source
IU of retinol per 100g
Duck liver
40 000 (1350% of RDA)​
Turkey liver
27 000​
Pork liver
21 650​
Beef liver
16 900​
Chicken liver
11 000​

The best sources of beta carotene aside from supplements:
Plant food source
mg of ß-carotene per 100g
Sweet potato
9.4​
Carrots
9.2​
Pumpkin
6.9​

And the best sources of lycopene aside from supplements:
Plant food source
mg of lycopene per 100g
Sun-dried tomatoes
46​
Ketchup
10-18​
Tomato sauce
16​
Tomato paste
7.5​
Raw tomatoes
2.6​
https://looksmax.org/threads/ketchup-is-a-very-good-source-of-lycopene.484342/
Vitamin D
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and many other biological effects. In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). The former is only found in food derived from animals.

The major natural source of the vitamin is synthesis of cholecalciferol in the lower layers of epidermis of the skin through a chemical reaction that is dependent on sun exposure (specifically UVB radiation). Cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol can be ingested from the diet and supplements. Only a few foods, such as the flesh of fatty fish, naturally contain significant amounts of vitamin D.

Vitamin D from the diet, or from skin synthesis, is biologically inactive. It is activated by two protein enzyme hydroxylation steps, the first in the liver and the second in the kidneys. As vitamin D can be synthesized in adequate amounts by most mammals if exposed to sufficient sunlight. The ability to synthetize vitamin D using sunlight is greatly hindered by melanin in the skin, which means the darker your skin is, the more dietary cholecalciferol you need.

An estimated one billion people worldwide are either vitamin D insufficient or deficient. Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in the European population. A diet with insufficient vitamin D in conjunction with inadequate sun exposure causes vitamin D deficiency, which makes you depressed, worsens calciumabsorption and testosterone production.

The recommended daily amount is around 10-15μg (400-600 IU).

The best source of vitamin D3 is by far fatty sea fish.
Animal food source
μg of vitamin D3 per 100g
Mackerel
16 (300% of RDA)​
Salmon
14​
Tuna
5.7​
Sardines
5​
Herring
4​
Eggs
1.5​

Cod liver and it's oil are ridiculously good sources of it. Just a table spoon of the latter contains more than twice of RDA.
Vitamin E
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant that protects tissues while fat is burned for energy. Severe deficiency is rare, but low intakes of vitamin E have been linked to high oxidative stress and tissue damage. Vitamin E is unique in that it is fat soluble and literally weaves itself into the fatty outer layer of the cell (the cell membrane) to stand guard and neutralize damaging compounds.

The benefits of vitamin E extend beyond its antioxidant capabilities. It also disrupts platelet aggregation, meaning it has a slightly blood thinning effect. In this capacity it may have a positive impact on cardiovascular health – allowing blood to flow freely through blood vessels. This same effect is observed in other heart healthy nutrients like omega 3 fatty acids.​

The recommended daily intake of vitamin E is 15mg. Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin. So in nature, the higher concentrations will be in foods with fat, the best source being fatty fish.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin E per 100g
Fish roe
7​
Abalone
4​
Trout
2.8​
Sardines
2​
Mackerel
1.5​
Salmon
1.1​
Eggs
1​
Muscle meat in general
0.3​

The Daily Value (DV) is a reference amount set for adults to consume of a particular nutrient each day. The DV for vitamin E is set at 15 mg of alpha-tocopherol, the only form of vitamin E maintained in our blood plasma (*). Although this is the working number set for vitamin E in the US, the FNB acknowledges that more research is needed to accurately characterize the amount of vitamin E required for optimal human health.

Now, if you do a simple google search for food sources of vitamin E, you’ll come across many vegetable oils listed. But what you’ll want to keep in mind is that vegetable oils are typically high in inflammatory omega 6 fats and they are typically processed in a way that produces free radicals (highly manufactured, high heat and chemical laden processes). So how much sense does it make to get your anti-inflammatory and antioxidant nutrients if they come bathed in free radicals.Exactly, not much.​

In another words, vitamin E is another case where the requirement is likely lower if you abstain from plant food.
Vitamin K
Vitamin K refers to structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamers. The human body requires vitamin K for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.

Vitamin K1 is made by plants, and is found in highest amounts in green leafy vegetables, because it is directly involved in photosynthesis. It is active as a vitamin in animals and performs the classic functions of vitamin K, including its activity in the production of blood-clotting proteins. Animals may also convert it to vitamin K2, variant MK-4. Bacteria in the gut flora can also convert K1 (phylloquinone) into MK-4. All forms of K2 other than MK-4 can only be produced by bacteria, which use these during anaerobic respiration. Vitamin K3 (menadione), a synthetic form of vitamin K, was used to treat vitamin K deficiency, but because it interferes with the function of glutathione, it is no longer used this way in human nutrition.​

The adequate daily amount for vitamin K (US Academy of Medicine does not distuingish between vitamin K1 & K2) is set at 120μg. No sufficient data exists for tolerable upper limit.

Phylloquinone (K1) has been determined to have the bioavaibility of only 5-10% when consumed from plant based foods (thereduced bioavailability of plant-sourced vitamin K appears to be due to a tight binding of phylloquinone to the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts). K2 is superior to K1, so it's kinda redundant, but you can still get it from animal sources:​

Animal food source
μg of vitamin K1 per 100g
Egg yolk
7​
Butter
2​
Mackerel
1​
Beef chuck
0.6​

Some K2 sources:

Animal food source
μg of vitamin K2 per 100g
Cheese
300-500​
Goose liver
370​
Beef liver
106​
Milk
38​
Turkey sausage
37​
Chicken meat
36​
Bacon
35​

Water-soluble vitamins
Water-soluble vitamins aren’t long-term like fat-soluble vitamins. They don’t get stored in your body. They enter your bloodstream, and anything your body doesn’t need is eliminated through your urine. ‌Since water-soluble vitamins don’t last long in your body, they need to be replenished frequently.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Thiamine, also known as thiamin and vitamin B1, is a vitamin, an essential micronutrient, which cannot be made in the body.

The RDA for vitamin B1 is 1.2 mg for adult males.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B1 per 100g
Pork chops
0.7 (56% of RDA)​
Pork kidney
0.35​
Salmon
0.3​
Pork liver
0.3​
Mussels
0.3​
Chicken heart
0.15​
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
As a water-soluble vitamin, any riboflavin consumed in excess of nutritional requirements is not stored; it is either not absorbed or is absorbed and quickly excreted in urine, causing the urine to have a bright yellow tint. Natural sources of riboflavin include meat, fish and fowl, eggs, dairy products.

The RDA for vitamin B2 for adult males is 1.3mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B2 per 100g
Beef liver
3.4 (260% of RDA)​
Chicken liver
2.3​
Whey protein powder
2​
Eggs
0.4​
Cheese
0.4​
Turkey meat
0.2-0.4​
Beef meat
0.2​
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient. It can be manufactured by plants and animals from the amino acid tryptophan. Niacin is obtained in the diet from a variety of whole and processed foods, with highest contents in fortified packaged foods, meat, poultry, red fish such as tuna and salmon.​

The daily adequate intake level of vitamin B3 for adult males is 1.6mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B3 per 100g
Tuna
5-22​
Bacon
10​
Salmon
10​
Turkey
7-12​
Chicken
7-12​
Beef
4-8​
Pork
4-8​
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 is a water-soluble B vitamin and therefore an essential nutrient. All animals require pantothenic acid in order to synthesize coenzyme A (CoA) – essential for fatty acid metabolism – as well as to, in general, synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.

The adequate daily intake level for vitamin B5 is 5mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B5 per 100g
Beef liver7.2
Pork liver6.65
Chicken liver6.2
Pork heart2.5
Salmon1.1
Mackerel0.85
Beef meat0.65
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
The term refers to a group of six chemically similar compounds, i.e., "vitamers", which can be interconverted in biological systems. Its active form, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, serves as a coenzyme in more than 140 enzyme reactions in amino acid, glucose, and lipid metabolism.

The daily needed amount of vitamin B6 is around 1.7mg.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin B6 per 100g
Whey protein concentrate
1.2​
Beef liver
1​
Tuna
1​
Beef meat
1​
Salmon
1​
Chicken meat
0.7​
Pork meat
0.6​
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
Biotin, also called vitamin B7, is one of the B vitamins. It is involved in a wide range of metabolic processes, both in humans and in other organisms, primarily related to the utilization of fats, carbohydrates, and amino acids.

Adequate daily intake for vitamin B7 is 30μg.

Animal food source
μg of vitamin B7 per 100g
Chicken liver
187​
Beef liver
42​
Eggs
21​
Salmon
6​
Pork chop
4.5​
Cheese
1.4​
Vitamin B9 (Folic acid)
Folate, also known as vitamin B9 and folacin, is one of the B vitamins. Manufactured folic acid, which is converted into folate by the body, is used as a dietary supplement and in food fortification as it is more stable during processing and storage. Folate is required for the body to make DNA and RNA and metabolise amino acids necessary for cell division. As humans cannot make folate, it is required in the diet, making it an essential nutrient. It occurs naturally in many foods.

The recommended adult daily intake of folate is 400 micrograms.
Animal food source
μg of folate per 100g
Chicken liver
578​
Calf liver
330​
Cheese
20-60​
Eggs
45​
Salmon
35​
Chicken meat
12​
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin involved in metabolism. It is one of eight B vitamins. It is required by animals, which use it as a cofactor in DNA synthesis, in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. It is important in the normal functioning of the nervous system via its role in the synthesis of myelin, and in the circulatory system in the maturation of red blood cells in the bone marrow. Plants do not need cobalamin and carry out the reactions with enzymes that are not dependent on it.

Vitamin B12 is the most chemically complex of all vitamins, and for humans, the only vitamin that must be sourced from animal-derived foods or supplements. Only some archaea and bacteria can synthesize vitamin B12. Most people in developed countries get enough B12 from the consumption of meat or foods with animal sources, it's only vegans who are sabotaging themselves as usual.

The required daily amount of vitamin B12 is around 2.5μg for adults.

Animals store vitamin B12 from their diets in their livers and muscles and some pass the vitamin into their eggs and milk. Meat, liver, eggs and milk are therefore sources of the vitamin for other animals, including humans. For humans, the bioavailability from eggs is less than 9%, compared to 40% to 60% from fish, fowl and meat. Insects are a source of B12 for animals (including other insects and humans). Animal-derived food sources with a high concentration of vitamin B12 include liver and other organ meats from lamb, veal, beef, and turkey; shellfish and crab meat.​
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue, the formation of collagen, and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters. It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function. It also functions as an antioxidant. Most animals are able to synthesize their own vitamin C. However, apes (including humans) and monkeys (but not all primates), most bats, some rodents, and certain other animals must acquire it from dietary sources.
Vitamin C needs a special mention if we are talking about the carnivore diet. The number 1 thing someone will say if you mention you only eat animal based food is but where do you get vitamin C from? You will get scurvy! Everyone knows the famous anecdote about British sailors getting scurvy on their long sea journeys and how they supposedly solved it by bringing citrus fruit with them. But the anecdote completely misses the real underlying problem, namely that ascorbic acid and glucose (sugar) are so similar, that they in fact compete for absorption in the human body:

https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/130/1/63/4686080

While many animals can use glucose to synthesize Vitamin C, humans and other primates such as apes and monkeys lost this capacity during the evolution process. Lack of L-gluconolactone oxidase enzyme in our bodies hinders us from synthesizing Vitamin C out of glucose.

But our bodies have devised ways to cope with this by creating a system that takes out the oxidized form of Vitamin C and transporting it in antioxidant form. Unlike animals that make their own Vitamin C, humans need low amounts of Vitamin C.

Researchers also found that glucose and Vitamin C have nearly identical molecular structure and use the same pathways for absorption into the bloodstream. As such, they compete with each other for uptake and glucose wins preferentially. So basically, when you consume a high-sugar, high carb meal, your body absorbs the glucose over Vitamin C.

The real reason why British sailors got scurvy is not the lack of vitamin C they consumed, it's the unmentioned fact that they ate a shitload of carb loaded biscuits, which in turn completely reduced their possible vitamin C absorption ability, skyrocketing the need for vitamin C, which they couldn't get until they decided to bring vitamin C rich fruits with them.

Eating fruits to get vitamin C is very retarded if you think about it. They might have high ascorbic acid content, but their high sugar content completely hinders it's absorption. That’s why drinking orange juice to increase Vitamin C is counterintuitive. It may contain a lot of Vitamin C, but you don’t get any of it because of the high sugar content.

TL;DR The more carbohydrates (glucose) you consume, the higher your vitamin C need is. If you follow a lowcarb diet, your ascorbic acid needs drops significantly, close to zero on a carnivore diet. No, you won't get scurvy if you only eat animal products.
Another important factor to note is that vitamin C's main function in the body at the end of the day is collagen production, which again, is already maxed out on a carnivore diet, since meat has hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine abundantly, the two building blocks of collagen. If you are looking for good skin, eating meat soup with bone marrow will do hundred times more for that than consuming muh fruits :feelsuhh:

If you’re worried about the antioxidant properties of Vitamin C, don’t be. Your body produces glutathione and uric acid, which are natural antioxidants. These substances are much more potent and take over many of Vitamin C’s roles in the body.​

Meat after all does contain vitamin C but keep in mind that ascorbic acid is very heat sensitive, overcooking your meat will destroy most of it, but again, it's not a problem.

Animal food source
mg of vitamin C per 100g
Beef spleen
45​
Pork liver
25​
Clams
20​
Chicken liver
18​
Pork kidney
13.3​
Trout
3.5​
Chicken heart
3.2​
Beef liver
1.3​

V. Minerals
Quantity elements
The five major minerals in the human body are calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and magnesium. Calcium makes up around 1kg of adult body weight, with 99% of it contained in bones and teeth. Phosphorus makes up another 1%. These minerals together with the most abundant elements (oxygen, hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen) make up 99.85% of the body.
Calcium (Ca)
Calcium is important for bone health, muscle contractions and blood clotting.

The RDA is set at 1g of calcium per day but a lot of people think this is too high. This is because calcium needs vitamin D and vitamin K2 to be absorbed into the body, and most modern diets are highly lacking in both of these.

Animal food source
mg of calcium per 100g
Cheese
750 - 1 400​
Canned small fish (like sardines, spruts) that has edible little bones in it
400​
Milk
120​
Quark
80​

The best source of calcium is dairy by far. Deficiency of it is highly correlated with lactose intolerance:
View attachment 1677538 View attachment 1677540

Dairy is so good in so many regards that if you happen to be lactose intolerant, I would highly suggest looking into lactose-free dairy products or getting lactase enzyme pills. With that said, dairy-free carnivore sources of calcium include small canned fish with little edible bones and you can make your own calcium powder by drying out and grinding eggshells.​
Magnesium (Mg)
Magnesium helps to maintain normal nerve function and muscle function, it supports your immune system and regulates your heartbeat. Sign of a magnesium deficiency include muscle cramps, muscle twitching, heart palpitations, fatigue, constipation. Overall it's a very important mineral for maximising physical output.

Intracellular magnesium is correlated with intracellular potassium. Increased magnesium lowers calcium and can either prevent hypercalcemia or cause hypocalcemia depending on the initial level. Both low and high protein intake conditions inhibit magnesium absorption, as does the amount of phosphate, phytate, and fat in the gut. Unabsorbed dietary magnesium is excreted in feces; absorbed magnesium is excreted in urine and sweat. The ideal ratio of calcium and magnesium is around 2:1.

Most people need around 400mg of magnesium a day, but this amount can go substantially higher if you are physically active. More is always better than not enough.​

Animal food source
mg of magnesium per 100g
Oyster
150​
Crab
110​
Mackerel
75​
Anchovies
45​
Tuna
35​
Muscle meat in general
25​
Cheese
25​
Liver
20​

As you can see seafood is by far the best source of magnesium in the animal kingdom, but they still don't contain a lot. Some amount do adds up but you should get the rest from water. Magnesium-rich water used to be the norm in nature, where our ancestors could drink water which has gone through layers of limestone.
IMG_1370_result.jpg

This is no longer a privilege for most of us, but the second best thing is drinking mineral water or by simply adding some more magnesium with supplements. It's very location dependant, but in many places tap water also contains a considerable amount of magnesium (usually near limestone mountains , who would have thought).​
Phosphorus (P)
RDA is around 700mg. The ideal calcium to phosphorus ratio is somewhere between 1:1 and 2:1.

Animal food source
mg of phosphorus per 100g
Sardines
480​
Cheese
350​
Liver
300​
Beef meat
200​
Pork meat
160​
Milk
90​

While phosphorus is naturally present in many foods, some processed foods also contain large amounts from additives. Phosphate additives are nearly 100% absorbable, and can contribute anywhere from 300 to 1,000 mg of additional phosphorus per day. Processed foods and beverages that often contain added phosphates include processed meats (beef, lamb, pork and chicken products are often marinated or injected with phosphate additives to keep the meat tender and juicy).​
Potassium (K)
Potassium is an essential nutrient that regulates fluid balance in cells and blood pressure. Symptoms of deficiency include increased blood pressure, kidney stones, constipation, muscle weakness, and irregular heartbeat.​

The daily recommended intake of potassium is at least 2,600 – 3,400 mg for an adult, though the USDA recommends 4,700 mg.

Animal food source
mg of potassium per 100g
Sardines
400​
Beef meat
375​
Salmon
370​
Chicken meat
300​
Liver
300​
Pork heart
300​
Milk
140​
Chicken eggs
140​
Cheese
140​

A cup of bone broth contains around 500mg of potassium, on top of this you can supplement more if needed with high-potassium salt subsitutes (these products replace a portion of sodium chloride found in table salt with potassium chloride).
Sodium (Na)
Sodium chloride (table salt) is the principal source of sodium. The U.S. Institute of Medicine set its tolerable upper intake level for sodium at 2.3 grams per day, but the average person consumes much more than that. Excess sodium consumption is linked with high blood pleasure in some individual and may cause bloat.

The carnivore diet and physical exercise (sweat) does increase sodium need, up to 5g / day.
Trace elements
The remaining ~18 ultratrace minerals comprise just 0.15% of the body, or about one hundred grams in total for the average person.
Chlorine (Cl)
The chloride anion is an essential nutrient for metabolism. Chlorine is needed for the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach and in cellular pump functions. The main dietary source is table salt (sodium chloride).
Cobalt (Co)
In humans, consumption of cobalt-containing vitamin B12 meets all needs for cobalt.
Copper (Cu)
Copper is an essential trace element that is vital to the health of all living things. Copper is incorporated into a variety of proteins and metalloenzymes which perform essential metabolic functions; the micronutrient is necessary for the proper growth, development, and maintenance of bone, connective tissue, brain, heart, and many other body organs. Similarly to some other divalent ions, copper strongly interacts with lipid membranes and is involved in the formation of red blood cells, the absorption and utilization of iron, the metabolism of cholesterol and glucose, and the synthesis and release of life-sustaining proteins and enzymes. These enzymes in turn produce cellular energy and regulate nerve transmission, blood clotting, and oxygen transport.​

Copper absorption is hindered by an excess of iron and zinc intake.

The daily recommended amount of copper is around 1mg, with the tolerable upper intake level being at 5mg.

The best animal sources of copper are seafood and organ meat (especially liver):

Animal food source
mg of copper per 100g
Beef liver
9.8 (1 000% of RDA)​
Oysters
4.4​
Lobster
2​
Pork liver
0.7​
Crab
0.7​
Chicken liver
0.5​
Chicken heart
0.35​
Salmon
0.3​
Muscle meat in general
~ 0.08 (10% of RDA)​
Iodine (I)
Iodine is an essential element for life and, at atomic number Z = 53, is the heaviest element commonly needed by living organisms.

The recommended daily intake of iodine is around 150µg, with the tolerable upper intake level being at 1 100µg.
(The thyroid gland needs no more than 70 μg/day to synthesise the requisite daily amounts of T4 and T3. The higher recommended daily allowance levels of iodine seem necessary for optimal function of a number of body systems)

You shouldn't really worry about consuming enough iodine, since most people season their food with iodised salt (half a table spoon has the RDA of iodine). That said, seafood, eggs and dairy are good sources of it:

Animal food source
µg of iodine per 100g
Tuna
60 (40% of RDA)​
Cheese
40​
Milk
40​
Shrimp
40​
Chicken eggs
35​
Iron (Fe)
Iron is an essential bioelement for most forms of life, from bacteria to mammals. Its importance lies in its ability to mediate electron transfer. In the ferrous state (Fe2+), iron acts as an electron donor, while in the ferric state (Fe3+) it acts as an acceptor. Thus, iron plays a vital role in the catalysis of enzymatic reactions that involve electron transfer (reduction and oxidation, redox).

Heme vs non heme iron
View attachment 1677533
Heme iron is clearly superior to non-heme and is only found in animal sources.
View attachment 1677534

Iron deficiency is by far the most common mineral deficiency, because
a) in developing countries people can only afford shitty plant food with non-heme iron
b) in developed countries mentally ill vegans and vegetarians willfully shoot themselves in the foot :soy:

What little bad quality iron plants have is further worsened by the presence of antinutrients such as oxalates in leafy greens, which completely hinders it's absorption.

The recommended daily amount of iron is around 18 mg, more for women due to menstruation's blood loss. Heme iron is stupidly abundant in animal foods, if you are following an animal based diet it's not a matter of getting in enough, it's actually not consuming too much iron is the one you should worry about.​

Animal food source
mg of heme iron per 100g
Clam
28 (155% of RDA)​
Pork liver
18​
Lamb kidney
12​
Oyster
12​
Mussel
6.7​
Beef heart
6.4​
Muscle meat in general
2.5 (20% of RDA)​

Don't drink blood! I've seen numerous carnivore guys looking for places to buy blood from, but drinking it is a bad idea as it has too much iron in it.
Manganese (Mn)
Manganese deficiency in humans results in a number of medical problems. Relatively high dietary intake of other minerals such as iron, magnesium, and calcium may inhibit the proper intake of manganese (as they complete with it for absorption). A deficiency of manganese causes skeletal deformation in animals and inhibits the production of collagen. Humans absorb only about 1% to 5% of dietary manganese.​

The daily recommended amount of mangenese is around 2mg but it's very shady, pointed out well by this redditor:
View attachment 1677541

As with other nutrients, like vitamin C, adequate manganese intake in reality is probably much lower than what the RDA may suggest. Animal based foods may seem to be lacking in manganese but I'm telling you that's not a coincidence.

Animal food source
mg of manganese per 100g
Grass-fed bison
11.5​
Mussels
6​
Beef tripe
6​
Bass (fish)
1.15​
Trout
1.1​
Oysters
1​
Clams
0.9​
Molybdenium (Mo)
The recommended daily amount of molybdenium is at least 45μg, with the upper tolerable intake level set at 2 000μg.

Average daily intake varies between 120 and 240 μg/day, which is higher than dietary recommendations. Pork, lamb, and beef liver each have approximately 1.5 parts per million of molybdenum.


Animal food source
of RDA
100g of beef liver
230%​
Cup of yogurt
60%​
Cup of milk
50%​
Selenium (Se)
The RDA of selenium for adults is 55μg.

Animal food source
μg of selenium per 100g
Tuna
100​
Shrimp
60​
Salmon
55​
Sardines
50​
Beef
40​
Pork
40​
Sulfur (S)
Sulfur is the third most abundant mineral in your body. It is present in methionine and cysteine, which are two of the amino acids you use to make proteins. Both of these amino acids are present in your skin, hair, and nails where they help to make these tissues strong and flexible (collagen).

You obtain the sulfur your body needs from animal based proteins as well as other types of compounds such as sulfinates, allicin, and sulfides. Sulfur is also present in thiamin (vitamin B-1) and biotin (vitamin H).

No recommended daily amounts have been proposed for sulfur intake. Meat is a great source of methionine though.
VI. Water
I recommend a daily water intake level of at least 1 liter per 20 kilograms of your bodyweight. Always keep yourself hydrated by drinking many times but not a lot at each occasion. Avoid drinking from plastic bottles and don't worry about the fluoride meme as there are very few places where they put fluoride into drining water.

Mineral water can be a good supplement if you can get it in glass bottles. The ones that have high magnesium content are the most useful.
Just give a list of foods
 
Cope

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Good thread, lots of valuable information.

Diet really isn't that complicated though, and one shouldn't be so excessively obsessive about each nutrient they put in their body. It just isn't that necessary.

Just keep it simple: lean meat, fatty fish, complex carbs, antioxidant-rich foods, lowering inflammation, and staying hydrated.
 
StuffedFrog

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Chicken, turkey, salmon, brown rice, beans, berries, spinach, kale, broccoli, tomatoes, almonds, etc.

Basically just eat healthy.
Turkey for the majority of the time taste so bad
 
YouLiveForYourself

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Yes. The meat section can be anything from chicken thighs to beef liver. I eat a lot of organs to cover my micronutrient needs

My macros are around 240g protein, 200-240g fat and 30-50g of carbs. Around 3 000 -3 200 calories, that means maintenance in my case.
Such a simple, easy diet and yet so effective.

I might jump on this when I jump on MK in July. This doesn't put you into a state of ketosis does it?
 
Prettyboy

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Gluten is easy to avoid. IBS is arguably worse with processed foods and animal products (in my experience).
Gluten is just one line in the long list of plant antinutrients. Oxalates, lectins, goitrogens, phytoestrogens, solanine, phytic acid, tannins, alpha amylase inhibitors etc. I could go on until tomorrow about listing harmful chemicals found in plants

So your the total amount of protein you consume per day is 240g. Are you lean bulking with ~3000 calories?
No, I’m not bulking. With this caloric intake I am at maintenance level.

Would you recommend liver for high protein food?
Definitely, liver is the most nutrient dense out of all foods. However don’t rely on it as your main source of protein since you can overdose vitamins that way (e.g. vitamin A)

Chicken, turkey, salmon, brown rice, beans, berries, spinach, kale, broccoli, tomatoes, almonds, etc.

Basically just eat healthy.
You contradict yourself. The plant foods you listed are anything but healthy. Leafy greens like spinach and kale are goldmines of toxic antinutrients, you should avoid them like plague if you want to be healthy.

Such a simple, easy diet and yet so effective.

I might jump on this when I jump on MK in July. This doesn't put you into a state of ketosis does it?
It does if you keep carb intake low. You can go out of ketosis if you increase carbs or cut down on fat and go for lean protein sources. The daily two cups of milk in the morning puts me out of ketosis temporarily
 
Reckless Turtle

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Gluten is just one line in the long list of plant antinutrients. Oxalates, lectins, goitrogens, phytoestrogens, solanine, phytic acid, tannins, alpha amylase inhibitors etc. I could go on until tomorrow about listing harmful chemicals found in plants
It's a weak argument that any of these have a "harmful" effect in a reasonable quantity. At least some of these "anti-nutrients" can be mitigated by simply properly soaking, draining, and cooking the plants.
 
Moggable

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- 100g of cheese
- 9 eggs
- 100g of fatty fish
- 2 cups of whole milk
- 500-600g of meat (including organs)
wtf jfl i eat the exact same but with around 120g cheese and 1L milk. planning on upping my egg count tho. gotta be vince gironda maxxing to even consider myself a looksmaxxer
 
YouLiveForYourself

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Gluten is just one line in the long list of plant antinutrients. Oxalates, lectins, goitrogens, phytoestrogens, solanine, phytic acid, tannins, alpha amylase inhibitors etc. I could go on until tomorrow about listing harmful chemicals found in plants


No, I’m not bulking. With this caloric intake I am at maintenance level.


Definitely, liver is the most nutrient dense out of all foods. However don’t rely on it as your main source of protein since you can overdose vitamins that way (e.g. vitamin A)


You contradict yourself. The plant foods you listed are anything but healthy. Leafy greens like spinach and kale are goldmines of toxic antinutrients, you should avoid them like plague if you want to be healthy.


It does if you keep carb intake low. You can go out of ketosis if you increase carbs or cut down on fat and go for lean protein sources. The daily two cups of milk in the morning puts me out of ketosis temporarily
Did you ever measure your blood sugar levels and if so what were they? If not, do you have any idea as to how a carnivore/near carnivore diet affects it?
 
freeone12

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broccoli = slavefood

 
Cope

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Leafy greens like spinach and kale are goldmines of toxic antinutrients, you should avoid them like plague if you want to be healthy.
Such a dumb argument, just because they have antinutrients doesn't mean they're unhealthy. Their health benefits heavily outweigh the "negative" nutritional effects.
 
hockeyguy64785

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High IQ. I see cheese is listed in alot of the lists, what cheese specifically is that because I swear there’s like 10000 cheeses :ROFLMAO:
 
Lars

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GET THIS SHIT TO THE BEST OF BEST
 
Prettyboy

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wtf jfl i eat the exact same but with around 120g cheese and 1L milk. planning on upping my egg count tho. gotta be vince gironda maxxing to even consider myself a looksmaxxer
Girondamaxxing is the ultimate looksmaxx 🍳🥚💪 I’ve had days recently when I ate more than a dozen of eggs :Comfy:

High IQ. I see cheese is listed in alot of the lists, what cheese specifically is that because I swear there’s like 10000 cheeses :ROFLMAO:
Yeah I intentionally wrote just “cheese“ cuz it’s very region dependant what cheeses someone can get their hands on. I mostly consume gouda, edam, maasdam, mozzarella, parenica and brie. Likewise Americans might find it easy to get cheddar, Indians paneer etc. But they are all good, all of them has more than enough calcium, protein and fat :Comfy:
 
Stopping@Nothing19

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i like the way this is laid out, more like this please:love:
 
Prettyboy

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Did you ever measure your blood sugar levels and if so what were they? If not, do you have any idea as to how a carnivore/near carnivore diet affects it?
I never did. The carnivore diet drastically increases insulin sensitivity on paper, which I can only confirm from my anecdotal observations.

I spike my blood sugar only before and after workouts with lactose, after that my level stays relatively low and stable as I abstain from carbs for the rest of the day. However protein on itself do elevates blood sugar modaretely, which is a good thing, since having low blood sugar level for too long would be catabolic.
 

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